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新概念4学习笔记:第49课 Through the Tunnel

吴应时 2020-06-09 17:01
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本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1. He put on…fitted…tested…

并列句,主谓宾结构,后两句省略了主语 he. 翻译的理解跟原文有些不一样,原文的状态可能是系牢了以后,把头放水中,看看是否漏气.

2. His hands were shaking.

简单句,主系表结构.

3. he chose the biggest stone and slipped over the edge until…

复合句,主句为两个主谓宾结构的并列句,until 引导的时间状语从句为主系表结构,其中 and 后面的主系表结构省略了系动词 was.

4. He looked up at the empty sky, filled his lungs, and sank to the bottom…

并列句,三句均为主谓宾结构,这里 fast 修饰谓语动词 sink,所以 fast 作副词解快速地下沉.

5. He let it go and began to count.

并列句,前句主谓宾+宾补结构,and 后句为省略了主语的主谓结构.

6. He took the edges and drew himself into it…as…

复合句,主句为 and 连接的两个句子,前句为主谓宾结构,后句为主谓宾+宾补结构,但是省略了主语.

后面 wriggling…sideways 和 kicking…feet 短语为伴随状语,其中 as he remembered he must 为 as 引导的方式状语从句,为主谓+宾语从句结构,he must 即为宾语从句,该从句省略了 that.

翻译在这里打散了原文的表达,重新予以了组织,文学翻译更像是再创作.

 

第二段语法符号详解:

1. he was clear.

简单句,主系表结构,此处翻译似乎有误,表语应为 clear,而非 inside,意思是主人公在洞里面看清楚了,很明白自己的处境,he was clear about the situation. 所以下一句描述其所处的洞中是什么情况. 改译:他在洞中很快就看清楚了.

2. He was in a hole…

简单句,主系表结构. 后面是过去分词短语作定语修饰 hole.

3. The water was pushing him up…

简单句,主谓宾+宾补结构.

4. The roof was sharp and pained his back.

并列句,以 and 分为前后两句,前句为主系表结构,后句为省略了主语的主谓宾结构. 原文是洞顶很坚硬,刺痛了背,翻译做了理解,洞顶上坚硬的也是石块,所以在处理上,跟上一句一起来翻译.

5. He pulled himself and used his legs as levers.

并列句,以 and 分为前后两句,前句主谓宾结构,后句为省略了主语的主谓宾+宾补结构,两个 fast 为插入语.

6. His head knocked against something; a pain dizzied him.

并列句,以分号相连,两句均为简单句,均为主谓宾结构. dizzied 是 dizzy 的过去分词,dizzy 在这里作动词解,常用作形容词.

7. He was without light, and the water seemed to press upon him…

并列句,以 and 分为前后两句,前句为主系表结构,后句为主谓宾结构. 这里原文表达的意思是,海水以岩石的重量压迫着主人公.

8. There was no strain…

there be 句型,主人公一直在憋气,憋到了 70 多下,肺部仍未感到压力,翻译写为气闷,非常精准.

9. He felt like a balloon, his lungs were light and easy, but his head was pulsing…

并列句,三句均为主系表结构.

 

第三段语法符号详解:

1. He was being pressed against the sharp roof, which…

复合句,主句主谓宾结构,后跟一个 which 引导的定语从句,为主系表结构.

2. he thought of octopuses, and wondered if…that…

并列复合句,以 and 分为前后两句,前句为简单句,主谓宾结构,后句为省略了主语的主谓+宾语从句结构,if 引导的宾语从句为主谓宾结构,其中包含 that 引导的定语从句修饰 weed,定语从句为主谓宾结构.

3. He gave himself a kick, ducked his head, and swam.

并列句,三个主谓宾结构的句子并列,首句为双宾语结构,直接宾语为 a kick,间接宾语为 himself,后两句则省略了主语 he. 单词 convulsive 在(46.1.4)出现过,而 duck为动词,取躲闪之意.

译文中将 panicky, convulsive 两词分成了前后两句来处理,原文的字面意思为带着恐惧而抽搐地一蹬,躲闪着头,向前游去. 因为害怕海藻缠脚,万不可猛蹬,只能慢一 点,抖一抖地蹬腿.

4. His feet and hands moved…

简单句,主谓结构. 这里 open water 应指开阔的海面,也就是主人公本身不钻隧道的话,在海上游泳的感觉.

5. The hole must have widened out.

简单句,主谓结构. 译文将此句放在了段末.

6. He thought he…, and he was frightened of banging his head if…

并列复合句,本句以 and 连接,前句为主谓+宾语从句结构,thought 后面为省略了 that 的宾语从句,and 后句则为主谓宾结构+一个 if 引导的条件状语从句,该从句为主谓结构.

 

第四段语法符号详解:

1. The water paled.

简单句,主谓结构.

2. Victory filled him.

简单句,主谓宾结构.

3. His lungs were beginning to hurt.

简单句,主谓结构.

4. he would be out.

简单句,主系表结构.

5. He was counting…; he said…

并列句,以分号相连,前句主谓结构,后句主谓宾结构,这里是又数了一次 115.

6. The water was a clear jewel-green…

简单句,主系表结构,表语就是一种颜色,翻译中将 jewel 处理为宝石一般的后置定语,非常巧妙. all around him 为介词短语作后置定语.

7. he saw a crack…

简单句,主系表结构,后面是现在分词短语作后置定语.

8. Sunlight was falling through it…

简单句,主谓宾结构,it 指上句的 crack,缝隙. 后面是伴随状语,mussel 即青口.从(49.5.4)句的 ahead 可知,此句的 ahead 亦是指洞口,光亮照进来,周边仍是黑暗,而非指洞的深处.

 

第五段语法符号详解:

1. He was at the end…

简单句,主系表结构. 后面 of 引导的定语中,what 引导的从句作介词 of 的宾语,属于成分中的细分,有倒装,正常语序为 he could do what.

2. He looked up at the crack as if…, as if…

复合句,主句主谓宾结构,后跟两个 as if 引导的方式状语从句,常用虚拟语气, 两句均为主谓宾结构,第二句跟了两个状语,分别表方向和目的.

3. he heard himself say…but he had said that…

并列句,以 but 连接,首句为主谓宾+宾补结构,句首的 115 其实是补语 say 的宾语;后句则是主谓宾结构.

4. He must go on into the blackness…, or he would drown.

并列句,前句为主谓宾结构,后句为主谓结构.

5. His head was swelling, (and) his lungs were cracking.

并列句,两句均为主系表结构,因后句省略了系动词 were,所以后句不算完整的句子,可以用逗号,否则要么在逗号后面加 and,要么将逗号改为分号. 本句的翻译在顺序上有所调整.

6. a hundred and fifteen pounded through his head, and he clutched at rocks…

并列句,两句均为主谓宾结构. 后面跟了两个现在分词短语作伴随状语.

7. He felt (that) he was dying.

复合句,主句主谓+宾语从句结构,从句则为主谓结构.

8. He was conscious.

简单句,主系表结构.

9. He struggled on…

简单句,主谓结构.

10. An immense, swelling pain filled his head, and the darkness cracked.

并列句,两句均为主谓(宾)结构.

11. His hands met nothing; and his feet propelled him out…

并列句,以分号相连,前句为主谓宾结构,后句为主谓宾+宾补结构. 两个现在分词短语均作后置定语.

[学习提示] 本文的句子结构较为简单,多使用简单句,尤其是主系表结构,复合句不多,在文学作品的阅读中,词汇量往往成为阅读障碍.

 

 

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