Section A The Battle Against AIDS
Through a series of class activities and practices, present students with more chances to learn:
1. language points and information provided in the text;
2. what we can do to protect ourselves, our families, our friends and neighbours;
3. a general statement supported by a problem-solution pattern writing.
to achieve better comprehensive of the text and express their own opinion.
1. the lessons from the battle against AIDS.
2. Fighting against AIDS entails everyone’s involvement and forces each of us to be an educator and learn to live.
1.AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is a disease which destroys the natural method the body uses to protect against other diseases. It is a disease caused by the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), but AIDS is different from HIV in that the former usually causes death while HIV may lead to AIDS. HIV is spread in three ways: (1) contact with infected blood; (2) sex; (3) mother-to-child. AIDS usually develops in four stages: (1) In the first stage, there is only infection by HIV and antibody (抗体) production. (2) In the second stage, the lymph nodes (淋巴结) enlarge (肿大). (3) In the third stage, an infected person may begin to have such signs (症状) as tiredness, fever, and night sweats. (4) In the last stage, AIDS is diagnosed when a person develops certain uncommon, life-threatening illnesses, for example Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(卡氏肺囊虫肺炎 ). In-depth coverage on AIDS and HIV can be found fromHealth/AIDS__HIV
2. Latino (pl. Latinos)
Latino (pl. Latinos) is the name given to Hispanic American citizens in the United States who share the Spanish language in common but may be from different races or religions and different Spanish speaking countries. Latinos are the fastest growing group in the U.S. and expected to more than double in size by 2020. For a comprehensive list of latino resources on the internet, you can check out the webpage at
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. This is the virus that spreads through contact with infected blood, infected sexual partners or within the womb of an infected pregnant mother. After infecting a person, HIV can remain hidden in the body for long and different periods of time until it becomes active and develops into AIDS for which no known cure exists. The virus spreads very fast once contact has been made with an infected source. In-depth coverage on AIDS and HIV can be found from Health/AIDS___HIV
4. the federal government
The federal government in the United States is a national republic whose members are elected to hold office for a limited period of time by citizens over 18 years of age. This republic has an elected president who is head of the nation as well as head of the federal or national government. For introduction to the U. S. government, please visit
5. a state government
A state government is the political structure that includes an area of land, citizens, and an elected governing body with the right to control and change all powers within the state that are not given by constitution to the federal government. Fifty state governments exist in the United States.
6. a beauty shop
A beauty shop is a business place where women go "to have their hair done," i.e., washed, curled, coloured, etc., or their fingernails or skin treated. The shop sells the 'thought' of beauty. A client should feel/look more beautiful after a visit to the beauty shop. Women who use such shops often have weekly appointments.
2. Introductory Questions:
The following questions are designed to check how well the students
are prepared for the lesson and also to help them to obtain a general idea of the text.
1).How many American people have been killed in the past few years?
2). According to the passage, who are the ones most the likely to be infected with AIDS?
3). What are the reasons why some local organizations emerged?
4). What is the purpose of forming the South Carolina AIDS Education Network?
5). Why is it impossible to hand out AIDS literature and expect people to read it in some communities?
6). In what way can teenagers do much better than adults according to the passage?
7). What are the ways to combat AIDS discussed in the passage?
8). What should people do in order to win the war against AIDS?
3. New words and Language Points:
1). New words
by one's own work, skill, etc. 获得;学到
He acquired a knowledge of the language by careful study.
The company has recently acquired a new office building in central Shanghai.
a.1. unable to be diseased or hurt because of special powers in oneself免疫的
HIV damages the human defense method which makes humans immune to diseases.
The medicine will make you immune to the disease.
2. protected from免除的
The man was told that he would be immune from punishment if he helped the police.
These goods are not immune from customs duties. 这些商品不免税。
state of having none or not enough of不足，缺乏;缺点,缺陷
The deficiencies in the plan are very clear and it can not succeed.
The officer was quite worried about the deficiency in the supply of water.
n.a set of qualities, happenings, methods, etc., common to a general condition
The syndrome is likely to strike those whose immune ability is damaged.
The doctor diagnosed the patient's syndrome from the test results.
er the nature of (a disease) 诊断; 判断
The doctor diagnosed my disease as a unique bone disease.
After diagnosing the patient's disease, these doctors discussed how to treat it.
vt.1. put disease into the body of (someone) 感染
Anyone with a bad cold may infect the people around him.
He was shocked when he knew he was infected with the HIV virus.
2. affect; influence 影响
He thought that parents might infect their children with their ideas.
n.a living thing which can cause a spreading disease in the body, in plants病毒
Nearly all the people infected with the AIDS virus will die.
he medicine is very effective in controlling the spread of the virus.
or like the countryside 农村的
The old man prefers the rural life to the life in the city.
People living in rural areas are likely to be more friendly than those living in the city.
Girls constitute 20 percent of the student population in the university.
Twelve people constitute a research group.
of the parts into which something may be divided部分
The waiter gave me a dish of orange segments.
Black people constitute the poorest segment of society in the country.
fear and worry; a warning of danger惊慌;警报
fear and worry; a warning of danger使惊慌，使担心
Hearing a scream, she sat up in alarm. 听到尖叫声，她慌忙坐起来。
In his speech the worker emphasized the government's alarm over the strike.
cause sudden fear or worry使惊恐,使担心
The news that war might break out alarmed the people. 战争可能爆发的消息使人们惊恐不安。
out or put into practice 实施，执行
The group's idea will be implemented immediately. 这个小组的建议将很快得到实施。
The government promised to implement a new program to control pollution.
The sun emerged from behind the clouds. 太阳从云层后面钻了出来。
A man with a gun in his hand suddenly emerged from behind a tree.
n.1. a person who pays a business person, esp. a lawyer for help and advice当事人
The lawyer spent a whole day talking with his client about the case.
His client was a middle-aged man who lost his wife two months ago.
2. a customer顾客
The company required its clients to pay their bills in advance.
The shop took some new measures to attract more clients.
state of being able to read and/or write文化;识字
They were required to take part in the literacy movement. 他们被要求参加识字运动。
It is reported that the literacy rate is very low in the rural areas.
the meaning of (sth.) by giving related pictures or examples 说明
His story illustrates her skill in dealing with the problem.
He illustrated his idea with many examples and pictures.
vt.1. tell (a story) 讲述
We related our troubles to him, asking his advice.
She had no opportunity to relate the situation to him. 她没有机会对他说这些情况。
2. see or show a joining between将... ... 联系起来
I can't relate the two ideas. 我不能把这两个观点联系起来。
I can' relate what he does to what he says. 我不能把他说的和他做的联系起来
The disease is spreading and all the children are at risk.
You have to take a lot of risks in my job. 做我的工作，你要冒诸多风险。
in danger; take the chance of losing冒着... ... 的危险
He would like to risk his life to save his friend. 他愿意冒生命危险救自己的朋友。
n.1. a business or an organization机构,企业
The two hotels are both excellent establishments. 这两家宾馆都是优秀企业。
The local government controlled all the printing establishments. 当地政府控制着所有印刷企业。
2. the act of setting up 建立,确立;确定
The group will work toward the establishment of schools for the poor.
of great danger or difficulty危机
The President had to quit his job for he wasn't able to deal with the crisis.
He has reached a crisis in his illness. 他的病情已十分危急。
vt.1. show; be a sign of; stand for 表示, 表明
This painting represents a storm at sea. 这幅图画表现了大海起风暴的情景。
The red lines on this map represent railway tracks. 地图上的红线代表铁路。
2. act or speak officially for(another person or people) 作为... ...的代表(或代理)
The manager couldn't go to the meeting, so his secretary represented him.
.1 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed in the United States in the late 1970s. (Para.1)
Meaning: AIDS was discovered by doctors in the last few years of the 1970's.
diagnose: vt. decide what illness a person has; discover the nature (a disease) by making a careful examination
Note: To talk about a doctor's finding someone ill with a certain disease we often say "diagnose with."
Nearly half of those diagnosed with the virus are blacks and Latinos. (Para.2) 被诊断感染艾滋病病毒的人有一半是黑人和来自拉丁美洲的人。
Women will soon make up 80 percent of those diagnosed with HIV. (Para.11) 妇女将占感染艾滋病病毒人口的80%。
But when we decide what illness a person has, we say "diagnose as."
The doctor diagnosed his condition as a stomach problem. 医生诊断他得了胃病。
Please pay attention to the following time expressions:
in the late 1970s: 20世纪70年代末期
in the early 1970s: 20世纪70年代初期
in the middle 1970s: 20世纪70年代中期
2. Women and youth in rural Southern communities now constitute the fastest growing segment of people with AIDS. (Para.2)
Meaning: The number of women and young people who are infected with AIDS is growing fastest in the countryside in the South.
constitute: vt. make up; form
Seven days constitute a week.一周有7天。
Twelve scientists constituted a research group to study air pollution.12位科学家组成一个研究小组研究空气污染。
Real familiarity with a 3,000 word vocabulary constitutes a good base for further English language learning.
segment: n. any of the parts into which something may be divided
The company controls this segment of the market. 这个公司控制了这部分市场。
3. In place of government inactivity, a number of local organizations have emerged. (Para.3)
Meaning: Because the government is not active in stopping the spread of AIDS, some local organizations have formed to help prevent its spread.
in place of: instead of
In place of a lecture we will be showing a film.我们不去作报告，而是放场电影。
John is to attend the meeting in place of the manager, who has come down with a bad cold. 约翰代替经理参加会议，因为经理患了重感冒
emerge: vi. come or appear; become known出现
Richard was waiting outside the door as Mary emerged.
Many ideas are likely to emerge after such an interesting finding.
Vietnam has emerged as the world's third biggest rice trader.
4.... this organization suffers from a lack of money, forcing it to use its resources creatively. (Para.4)
Meaning: ... this organization lacks money, and so it has to make use of its people, materials and ideas in a creative way.
suffer from: be badly influenced by
Within a few days, she has become seriously ill, suffering from great pain.只几天时间，她的病情加重了，她被折磨得痛苦不堪。
He was diagnosed as suffering from AIDS. 他被诊断为染上了艾滋病。
resources: n. the materials, money or other things an organization or a family has and can use in order to function properly; the things a country has and can use to increase its wealth
Some families are so poor that they don't have enough resources to feed themselves.有些家庭很穷，不能养活自己。
The country is rich in oil resources but lacks money and technology to develop them. 这个国家有丰富的石油资源，但缺乏资金和技术开发这些资源。
5. These books use simple, hand-drawn pictures of "sad faces" and "happy faces" to illustrate ways people can prevent AIDS. (Para.9)
Meaning: Simple pictures of "sad faces" and "happy faces", drawn by hand, are used in these books to show how people can prevent AIDS.
illustrate: vt. add pictures to (sth. written); show the meaning of (sth.) by giving pictures or examples
The case illustrates that women can do much better than men in some fields. 这个事例说明了妇女在某些领域可以比男性干得出色得多。
Let me give another example to illustrate this difficult point.
6. Redefine "at risk" to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status.(Para.11)
Meaning: Consider again the problem of "who is at risk for AIDS" in a new way,
as women from different backgrounds and marriage status should be included in the people who are at risk for AIDS.
redefine: vt. consider sth. in a new way
The scientist redefined the relations between population and economic affairs. 这位科学家重新说明了人口和经济之间的关系。
The government was asked to redefine its program on birth control.
Please pay attention to the following expressions with "status":
marriage status 婚姻状况
economic status 经济状况
job status 就业情况
legal status 法律地位
7. The stylists also emphasize that everyone is at risk and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves-regardless of marriage status.(Para.12)
Meaning: The stylists also showthat everyone is in danger of catching AIDS and that all of us have a right to protect ourselves-whether we are married or not.
emphasize: vt. stress sth. is very important
Robert emphasized the difference between the interests of the single person and those of the community.罗伯特强调了个人利益和社区利益的区别。
The official emphasized that his government would implement the program. 这位官员强调政府将执行这项计划。
regardless of : not consider or be influenced by
Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to obey his orders. 不管他是对还是错，我们都得服从他的命令。
We decide to go out regardless of the weather.不管天气如何，我们都决定出门。
8. We must not let cultural, racial, or social barriers distract us from the job that must be done.(Para.14)
Meaning: We must not let cultural, racial or social barriers take our attention from the job that must be done.
barrier: n. sth. that makes it impossible or difficult for sth. else to happen
Taxes are the biggest barrier to free trade. 税收是自由贸易的最大障碍。
There is no reason why love shouldn't cross the age barrier.认为爱情不可以跨越年龄障碍的说法是没有道理的。
distract sb. from sth.: take one's attention from sth.
Don't let social activities distract you from your study.不要让社会活动影响你的学习。
The music soon distracted the boy from his homework.音乐声很快使这个男孩分心了，以致不能专心做家庭作业。
9. We simply cannot let people continue to die because we don't feel comfortable talking about AIDS. (Para.14)
Meaning: We really cannot let people continue to die just because we are not happy to talk about AIDS.
feel comfortable doing/with sth.: feel happy about doing sth.
Do your feel comfortable with the plan? 你对这个计划满意吗?
(1) typical patterns for definition of sth.: Sb./Sth. is a(n)… that / who / which / prep. + which…(从句) 某人或某物是……
(2) typical patterns for comparison and contrast:
1) Despite / In spite of sth, sb / sth (else) is + adj. in doing … (或: Despite …, sb / sth still does sth else.)
尽管……, 某人 / 某物(仍做……) 在……方面……
2). In place of sth./sb, sth(else)/sb (else ) do/does … 与某物或某人相比, 另一物或另一人却…
3) Sth. /Sb. has / does /is more… than… 某物或某人 比其他物或人更……
4). Main idea of the text and devices for developing it:
Main idea of the text ：
Despite the spread of AIDS, no cure for it and lack of government activity, some local organizations have been active and creative in the battle against the fatal disease.
Devices for developing it：
AIDS, diagnosed in the late 1970s, has killed more than 204,000 Americans, expecting another 185,000 of the one million infected with the HIV virus to die; and meanwhile,women and youth in rural Southern communities are making up the fastest segment of people with AIDS. Hit with the problems, however, American governments have been slow in stopping the spread of the disease.(Para. 1 - 3)
Numerous local organizations have set up and shared with each other some effective AIDS educational programs: speak to your community in a way they can hear; train teenagers to educate their peers; redefine “at risk” to include women from different backgrounds and marriage status. (Para. 3-12)
These programs are not the only solutions to the crisis but, until there is a cure for AIDS, they are only safe measures against the virus.(Para. 13)
2. Deduction Organization演绎法:
( from ‘general’ to ‘specific’)
General statement :
The South Carolina AIDS Education Network , formed in 1985 and suffering from a lack of money, has been active and creative in the battle against AIDS.(Para. 4)
• It operates its educational programs out of a beauty shop. (Para.5)
• It resorts to the network to help the hair stylists set up similar programs in other shops. (Para.6)
• It has developed several techniques useful to other groups doing similar work: an easy-to-understand education within the community, self-education among peers, and redefinition of “at risk”. (Para. 7 -12)
3. Comparison and Contrast 对比法
The comparison and contrast is between “the government’s inactivity ” and “the local organizations’ creative operations of the educational programs”.
despite, in place of, more than
The Government’s Inactivity:
Despite the alarming numbers, the federal and state governments have been slow in implementing programs to stop the spread of the AIDS.(Para. 3)
Local Organizations’ Creative Involvement
A. In place of the government’s inactivity, a number of local organizations have emerged.(Para. 3)
B. One of them, suffering from a lack of money, uses its resources creatively. (Para.4)
C. As a result, such books actually have more effect in the communities…than government publications… (Para. 9)
4). Main idea of each part and devices for developing them:
The text may be divided into four parts, accordingly, separate the class into four groups, each group will have discussions about one part, they are required to
(1). get the topic sentence ( or the main idea ) and supporting details of each part
(2). find out the clues as to how the author developed his ideas
(3). everyone should have a chance to express his own ideas
(4). choose representatives to report their opinions
Part I (para1-2)：A serious disease named as AIDS was diagnosed in the U.S.A. in the late 1970s; and since then it has been a big threat to the American society.
Part II (para.3-6): In contrast to the government’s inactivity, some local organizations have made efforts to fight against AIDS creatively.
Part III(para.7-13): The organization has generalized some practical methods which are useful to other similar groups.
Part IV(para.14): Fighting against AIDS entails everyone’s involvement and forces each of us to be an educator and learn to live.
5). Summary of the Text and Questions for Review
Teacher: Before we finish studying the text, I’d like to ask you some questions. You can answer these questions with your own experiences:
1. What is the name of the disease that appeared more than 20 years ago?
The name of the disease that emerged more than 20 years ago is AIDS. As a damaging and infectious disease, it has killed thousands of people and made more than one million people infected. In addition, it threatens to wipe out an entire generation and leaves another without parents, which itself has contributed to a serious social problem.
2. What war does this passage describe?
The war described in this passage refers to people’s fighting against the disease: AIDS. Despite the government’s inactivity, many local organizations have been established to combat this fatal disease. They make efforts toeducate people to guard against the virus by carrying out their educational programs creatively. They use easy-to-understand language or hand-drawn pictures to explain the risk of catching AIDS or emphasize that everyone is at risk and has a right to protect himself.
3.What must each of us learn to do?
Each of us should learn to be open-minded and try not to be distracted from the
concentration on the solution to the problem itself by the cultural, racial or social barriers. Moreover, each of us should learn to be responsible for fighting against this disease and protect ourselves and others as well. In other words, each of us should become an educator and learn to live a healthy life, keeping ourselves free from any unhealthy sex acts, remaining faithful to our marriage life, and staying far away from any habit-forming drug.
Since it was _________, AIDS has killed _________ of Americans. Women and youth in rural Southern communities are most ______ to be ________ with AIDS. In _____ of the spread of AIDS and lack of government activity to stop it, some local organizations ________. The South Carolina AIDS Education Network formed to help _______ the number of AIDS _____. In some communities, handing ____ AIDS literature and __________ people to read it is not very _______ because many people cannot read. Besides, AIDS is _________ fastest among teenagers in the _____ South. So these groups have _________ some _____ methods of _________ the spread of AIDS, ______ include: speak to your community in a way they can hear; train teenagers to educate their _____; and ________ “at risk” to include women from different backgrounds and marriage ______. In other _____, everyone should ____ ____ ____ the war ______ AIDS.
The last Dive at the Olympics
I. Reading Skills---Readfing for Major Details (30’)
For this unit as you find in your students' book, we focus on the major details of paragraphs.
From the students' book we learn that when we are reading a paragraph, we should first try to identify and then try to separate the major detail from the small or less important details.
Here are some ways to help you locate the major detail.
1.Learn to read for the main idea. If you identify the main idea easily, the facts to support that idea will stand out.
2. Know that all facts and details are not equal in importance. Look only for the facts that relate to the main idea.
II. Introductory Questions: (10’)
Choose the best answer to each of the following questions according to your understanding of the text. ( p19).
Q. 1. Immediately before he hit his head on the board, the writer __________.
climbed the ladder
started the moves that would thrust him into the air
knew he was too close to the board
corrected his actions when he turned
Q:2. The writer pushed away everyone else who came near to him because _________.
he hated them
he felt like screaming “Get away from me”
he felt embarrassed and wanted to hide without anyone seeing him
he was HIV-positive and feared that others' lives would be endangered if they touched his bleeding head
Q: 3. The writer’s natural parents did not adopt him because _________.
they were too poor to raise him
they were too young to raise him
they did not love him
they were Samoan
Q: 4. According to the passage, the writer’s diving gave him _______.
A. the sense of being stupid
B. the sense of being strong
C. the sense of being successful
D. the sense of being lonely
Q: 5. The writer began to practise doing gym exercises off the diving board ________.
A. in 1976
B. in 1971
C. in 1970
D. in 1972
Q: 6. The writer feared he would be hated by people if they found that _________.
A. he was HIV-positive
B. he had sex with men
only won a silver medal
D. his partner had AIDS
Q: 7. After he hit his head on the board at the trials, the writer _________.
practiced less with the help of his coach
B. was scared and gave up diving forever
the chance to compete at the finals
D. still got the chance to compete at the finals
Q: 8. The writer had been a diver for Olympic games for __________.
A. 18 years
B. 17 years
C. 16 years
D. 12 years
IV. Language Points: (20’)
1 ...commenced the moves that would thrust me into the air.(Para.1)
Meaning: ... started to do the actions that would make me leap into the air.
commence: v. begin, start
Before we commence again, let me give you a word or two of advice.
2 ...that would thrust me into the air. (Para.1)
Meaning: ... that would make me jump into the air.
thrust: vt. push with force and suddenly
The muggers thrust him into the small room and tied him up.
He thrust the gun into his pocket. 他把枪塞进口袋。
3 I tried to correct myself as I turned, spreading my hands wide apart. (Para.1)
Meaning: I tried to correct my actions as I turned, and separated my hands as wide apart as possible.
apart: ad. separate by a distance
The two houses stand apart and there is a path between them wide enough for two cars to pass at the same time.
The two sportsmen stood apart, waiting for the signal to fight.两个运动员分开站着，等待信号开始比赛。
4 Initially, I felt embarrassment. (Para.2)
Meaning: At first, I felt ashamed.
embarrassment: n. feeling ashamed, uncomfortable or anxious
In embarrassment he couldn't remember the reasons for visiting Nancy.尴尬之中，他记不起来拜访南希的理由了。
"I beg your pardon," said he, with some embarrassment. "对不起，"他有点尴尬地说道。
5 In haste, I pushed him away, and everyone else who approached me.(Para.2)
Meaning: In a hurry I pushed him away and everyone else who came near to me.
haste: n. quick movement or action
William said that the work must be finished with all possible haste.
In my haste I forgot to lock the door. 匆忙之中，我忘记锁门了。
approach: v. come near (to); begin to consider or deal with
The day of the holiday is approaching. 假期快来临了。
As we approached the house, we found a man going out of it.走近这栋房子时，我们看到一个人从屋内出来。
Workers, above all, should know how to approach the problem correctly. 工人们首先应该知道如何正确处理这个问题。
The political official approached the group of people and began to talk to them.那个政治家走向人群，开始与他们交谈。
6. These were the trials for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea. (Para.3)
Meaning: These were a sequence of matches for the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea.
Please note that the word "trial" is a special term for sports here. When it is used in this sense it is often used in the plural form. However, "trial" is often used in the following sense
trial: n. 1) (an act of) testing to find quality, value, or usefulness
The trials show that the medicine is safe for most people.
After the trial they could meet their relatives. 审判之后他们可以同亲属见面。
7. At sixteen, I knew I had a shot at the 1976 Olympics. (Para.6)
Meaning: At sixteen, I knew I had a chance to take part in the 1976 Olympics.
have a shot at: attempt to do sth.
I doubt whether I can solve the problem, but I'll have a shot at it.
Why don't you have a shot at talking to her yourself? 为什么你不尝试着自己与她谈?
8 . This was an enjoyable triumph. (Para.6)
Meaning: This was a pleasant victory.
triumph: n. complete victory or success
The match ended in a triumph for the Chinese team.这场比赛以中国队获胜结束。
triumph：vi. win a battle against, defeat
He believed that he could triumph over the difficulties he met.
Our team at last triumphed over theirs at yesterday's match.
9. I couldn't tell anyone for fear I wouldn't be able to compete in the Olympics if people learned I was HIV-positive.(Para.7)
Meaning: I couldn't tell anyone in case I wouldn't be able to take part in the Olympics if people knew that I was infected with HIV.
for fear: for being afraid
"For fear" is often followed by a that clause.
He set off very early for fear that he might be late for the interview. 他早早就出发了，生怕面试迟到
compete: vi. take part in (a game, match)
Our school competes against many other schools in baseball.
The boy was reluctant to compete for the first time in front of his parents. 那个男孩第一次当着父母的面比赛，心里有点儿紧张。
10. Regardless, I made it into the finals. (Para.8)
Meaning: Even though I hit my head on the board at the trials, I got a chance to compete in the finals.
make it: succeed in doing sth.
I believe that I have the ability to make it. 我相信我有能力做成此事。
He hadn't been able to make it to our dinner. 他还是没能赶上我们的宴会。
11. I had to quit diving professionally after the Olympics. (Para.10)
Meaning: I had to give up diving as a professional job after the Olympics.
quit: stop (doing sth.) and leave
Steve quit when he realized that he could not win.
Others made critical comments about him because he quit his duties.