Being ill in bed, I can't go to school.
Mother being ill in bed, I can't go to school.
He lay on the grass, the sun shining upon him.
= He lay on the grass, and the sun was shining upon him.
Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow.
= If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow.
School being over, the boys went home.
= When school was over, the boys went home.
The sun having set, we arrived at the station.
= After the sun had set, we arrived at the station.
王牌重点：当独立主格结构的主语表示“一般人”，如：we, one, you时，主语可省略，此用法常用于下列表达方式中：
generally speaking 一般来说
strictly speaking 严格地说
talking of ... 谈到
speaking of ... 说到
judging from ... 由……来判断
taking all things into consideration 把一切都考虑在内
considering ... 考虑到……
If we judge from his face, he must be ill.
= Judging from his face, he must be ill.
He has lots of books if we consider that he is young.
= He has lots of books, considering that he is young.
(1) with+ 名词 + 介词短语
The woman with a baby on her back is my sister.
The boy rushed into the room, with his schoolbag in his hand.
(2) with + 名词 + adj.
with the door open, he left the classroom.
(3) with + 名词 + adv.
With the gloves off, she felt cold.
With the lights on, the building looks beautiful.
(4) with + 名词 + 现在分词（主动）
with + 名词 + 过去分词（被动）
With the guide leading us, we got to the village.
The boy was crying with the vase broken.
(5) with + 名词 + 不定式
With the hard work to be done, we have to prepare for it.