never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。如：
Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.
Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.
Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.
often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point，many a time。如：
So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.
（1）出于修辞需要，表示方向的副词：out, down, in, up, away, on。如：
Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.
（2）出于习惯用法：here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如：
Now is your turn. There goes the bell.
Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.
（2）出现在句型be+主语+其他, come what may中。如：
Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.
The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. Come what may, I’ll be on your side.
Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.