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新概念英语第一册语法知识

学术小学生 2022-09-18 10:45
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语法是语言学的一个分支,研究按确定用法来运用的"词类"、"词"的屈折变化或表示相互关系的其他手段以及词在句中的功能和关系。下面为大家带来了新概念英语第一册语法知识,欢迎大家参考。

时态:

一般现在时,现在进行时,一般过去时,现在完成时,一般将来时,过去进行时,过去完成时,过去将来时

1. 一般现在时

表示一般性,经常性的动作或一般性事实。

1 含有be动词的句子

He is a teacher.

The girl is very beautiful.

Tim and Jack are students.

变疑问句将be动词移到句首

Is he a teacher?

Is the girl very beautiful?

Are Tim and Jack students?

变否定句在be动词后面加not

He is not a teacher.

The girl is not very beautiful.

Tim and Jack are not students.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, he is. No, he is not.

Yes, she is. No, she is not.

Yes, they are. No, they are not.

不含有be动词的句子,即含有一般动词的句子

第三人称单数及单数名词

He likes books.

She likes him.

The dog likes bones.

变疑问句在句首加does, 动词变为原型

Does he like books?

Does she like him?

Does the dog like bones?

变否定句在主语及动词之间加doesn’t, 动词变为原型,原句中的动词不再有第三人称变化。

He doesn’t like books.

She doesn’t like him.

The dog doesn’t like bones.

肯定回答及否定回答:

Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.

Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t

Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t.

注意:第三人称单数形式一般在动词后面加S,不要和名词复数混淆,变否定句或疑问句时名词复数没有任何变化。

其他人称及复数名词

I want to have a bath.

We have some meat.

The students like smart teachers.

变疑问句在句首加do

Do you want to have a bath?

Do we have any meat?

Do the students like smart teachers?

变否定句在主语和动词之间加don’t.

You don’t want to have a bath.

We don’t have any meat.

The students don’t like smart teachers.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, I do. No, I don’t.

Yes, we do. No, we don’t

Yes, they do. No, they don’t.

2. 现在进行时

表示现在正在进行的动作。

构成: 主语+be动词+动词的现在分词+其它成分(现在分词的构成见附录)

We are having lunch.

He is reading a book.

The dog is running after a cat.

The boys are swimming across the river.

变疑问句将be动词移到句首

Are we having lunch?

Is he reading a book?

Is the dog running after a cat?

Are the boys swimming across the river?

变否定句在be动词后面加 not

We are not having lunch.

He is not reading a book.

The dog is not running after a cat.

The boys are swimming across the river.

特殊疑问句:what, which, how, where, who, etc.

疑问词+动词+主语+现在分词

What are you doing?

What is she doing?

What is the dog doing?

没有进行时的动词(必背)

表示状态,思想,感情和感觉的动词不能表示正在进行的动作

1. 表示感觉,感官的词

see, hear, like, love, want,

2. have, has当”拥有”讲时没有进行时

3. 一般过去时

表示过去发生的动作或事件, 常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last night, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago,

含有be动词的句子, 将动词变为过去式,am, is的过去式为was,are的过去式为were

I was at the butcher’s.

You were a student a year ago.

The teacher was very beautiful ten years ago.

变疑问句将be动词移动到句首

Were you at the butcher’s?

Were you a student a year ago?

Was the teacher very beautiful ten years ago?

变否定句在be动词后面加not

I was not at the butcher’s.

You were not a student a year ago.

The teacher was not very beautiful ten years ago.

肯定回答否定回答

Yes, I was. No, I was not.

Yes, you were. No, you were not.

Yes, he/she was. No, he/she was not.

特殊疑问句:

What did you do?

(必背)

不含有be动词的句子,将动词变为过去式,动词过去式构成见附录

I finished my homework yesterday.

The boy went to a restaurant.

The Sawyers lived at King Street a year ago.

变疑问句在句首加did, 动词变为原型

Did you finish your homework yesterday?

Did the boy go to a restaurant?

Did the Sawyers live at King Street a year ago?

变否定句在主语和动词之间加did not

I did not finish my homework yesterday.

The boy did not go to a restaurant.

The Sawyers did not live at King Street a year ago.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.

Yes, he did. No, he didn’t.

Yes, they did. No, they did not.

4. 现在完成时

构成:主语+助动词have, has+过去分词

用法:

2) 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和just, usually, already, since等时间副词连用

I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了)

He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝)

They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了)

The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了)

3) 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时:

Have you finished your homework?

Have you been to Beijing?

Have he seen the film?

4) 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作

I have lived in Beijing for twenty years.

I have worked for this school for 1 year.

8) 表示一种经历,经验:去过…地方,做过…事情,经历过…事情

I have never had a bath.

I have never seen a film.

I have never been to cinema.

I have ever been to Paris.

Have been to表示去过,have gone to 表示去了

I have been to London.(人已经回来)

He has gone to London.(人还在那里)

11) 表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用

I have lost my pen.

I have hurt myself.

He has become a teacher.

She has broken my heart.

句型变化:

变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加not.

e.g. Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, I have. No, I have not.

特殊疑问句:

What have you done?

What has he done?

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:

凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时

注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用

错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days.

对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.

5. 一般将来时

表示将来将要发生的动作, 经常和tomorrow, next year, the day after tomorrow, the year after the next, in five hours’ time, etc. 表示将来的词联用

结构: 主语+助动词will+动词原形

I will go to America tomorrow.

The pilot will fly to Japan the month after the next.

Jack will move into his new house tomorrow morning.

变疑问句将助动词移到句首

Will you go to America tomorrow?

Will the pilot fly to Japan the month after the next?

Will Jack move into his new house tomorrow morning?

变否定句在助动词后面加not

I will not go to America tomorrow.

The pilot will not fly to Japan the month after the next.

Jack will not move into his new house tomorrow morning

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, I will. No, I will not.

Yes, he/she will. No, he/she will not.

Yes, he will. No, he will not.

特殊疑问句:

What will you do?

6. 过去完成时:

用法:在过去的时间里,两个动作中,发生在前的哪个动作要用过去完成时。

结构:had+过去分词

After she had finished her homework, she went shopping.

They had sold the car before I asked the price.

The train had left before I arrived at the station.

After/before引导的时间状语从句放在句首要在句子后面加逗号,如果放在主句后则不用加。

变疑问句将助动词移到句首

Had she finished her homework?

变否定句在助动词后面加not

She hadn’t finished her homework.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, she had. No, she hadn’t.

特殊疑问句:

What had she done?

7. 过去进行时

表示过去正在进行的动作,经常用在when, while, as引导的状语从句中。

结构:was/were+doing

When my husband was going into the dining room this morning, he dropped some coins on the floor.

While we were having dinner, my father was watching TV.

8 过去将来时

结构:would do

She said she would go here the next morning.

两个 特殊句型:there be 句型,be going to 结构

Be going to 结构

表示打算,准备,计划做某事

结构:主语+be动词+going to +动词原型

I am going to make a bookcase.

They are going to paint it.

The father is going to give the bookcase to his daughter.

变疑问句将be动词移到句首

Are you going to make a bookcase?

Are they going to paint it?

Is the father going to give the bookcase to his daughter?

变否定句在be动词后面加not

I am not going to make a bookcase.

They are going to paint it.

The father is not going to give the bookcase to his daughter.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, I am. No, I am not.

Yes, they are. No, they are not.

Yes, he is. No, he is not.

特殊疑问句

What are you going to do?

What are they going to do?

What is the father going to do?

There be 句型

表示哪里有什么东西(某处有某物)

There is+单数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组)

There is a book in this room.

There is a pen on the table

There are+复数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组)

There are two pens on the table.

There are three schools there.

变疑问句将be动词移到句首

Is there a book in this room?

Are there two pens on the table?

变否定句在动词后面加not

There is not a book in this room.

There are not two pens on the table.

肯定回答及否定回答

Yes, there is. No, there is not.

Yes, there are. No, there are not.

9.问句:

一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句,反意疑问句,选择疑问句,否定疑问句

一般疑问句: 助动词/be动词+主语

Are you a teacher? Do you want to have a cup of tea?

特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

What is your name?

选择疑问句: or

Do you want beef or lamb?

反意疑问句: 肯定陈述句+否定疑问部分, 否定陈述部分+肯定疑问部分

You don’t need that pen, do you?

否定疑问句: 一般疑问句+否定词

Aren’t you lucky? Don’t you want have a rest?

10.名词:种类,复数,名词所有格

名词分为可数名词和不可数名词

不可数名词

无法分开的东西:water, tea, bread, milk, rice(米)

抽象的东西:love, beauty, coldness(寒冷)

不可数名词有以下特点:

·不能用a, an修饰

·不能加s

·和单数be动词或动词搭配

可数名词:

单数可数名词要用冠词修饰,复数可数名词要在名词后面加s,名词复数共有以下几种变化:

规则变化的名词复数形式

规则1 一般情况+s e.g. shell→shells book→books

规则2 以s, x, ch, sh结尾+es e.g. fox→foxes church→churches, bus→buses, watch→watches

规则3 以o结尾+s或+es e.g. potato→potatoes, Negro→Negroes, hero→heroes, tomato→tomatoes,(口诀:黑人英雄爱吃土豆和西红柿),剩下一般加s, radio→radios

规则4 以f, fe结尾的,变f, fe为ves e.g. life→lives half→halves, shelf→shelves, city→cities, wife→wives

规则5 以辅音字母+y结尾, 变y为i+es e.g. sky→skies fly→flies

不规则变化的名词复数形式

man(men) woman(women) foot(feet) goose(geese) tooth(teeth)0

child(children) sheep(sheep) deer(deer) mouse(mice) fish(fish)

拓展:语法特征

抽象性

语法是从众多的语法单位里抽象出其中共同的组合方式、类型及如何表达语义的规则。“语法从词和句的个别和具体的东西中抽象出来,把作为词的变化和用词造句的基础一般的东西拿来,并且以此构成语法规则、语法规律。”例如汉语里有“看看、说说、写写、学习学习、讨论讨论”这一词的重叠现象,这反映出一条词的变化规律:有些动词可以用重叠的方法来表示动作的某一语义类型,即表示少量或短时。又如汉语里有“心情舒畅。/服装整齐。/步调一致。/前途光明。”这些句子,他们意思各异,但结构相同,都是名词在前,形容词在后,直接组合,表示被陈述和陈述的关系,加上句调就构成了主谓句。由此可见,语法指的是抽象出来的公式,舍弃了个别的、具体的内容,一种语言里的词多如牛毛,由这些词组合而成的具体短语和句子更是难以计数,但是它内部的组合规则和格式是很有限的。语法学的.任务是描写,解释组成词、短语和句子的规则和格式。由此可见,语法具有抽象性、概括性。

生成性

我们可以根据有限的语法规则造出无数合格的句子来,这就表现了语法的生成性。语法规则的生成性,集中的表现在两个方面:组合关系和聚合关系。

层次性

语法从表面上看是线性排列的东西,但是语法结构却是有层次性的。除了联合短语外,主谓,述宾,述补,偏正等短语都能切分出两个直接成分。直接成分还可以进一步切分出更小的直接成分,这样复杂短语就可以由大到小分析出若干层次。例如汉语:我们进行社会调查

|__||_____________|主谓关系

|__||________|述宾关系

|___||___|偏正关系

语法的层次性与语法的递归性密切相关。

系统性

语法是一个严密的立体的开放的系统网络。所谓“严密”,是指系统的内部是相互制约的,要受到一定的规则的支配,不是可以随心所欲的。所谓“立体”,是指语法系统包括了句法结构,语法意义,语言运用这三个交叉的不同平面。所谓“开放”,是指语法系统是发展变化的,一直在不断地自我完善,旧的成份被逐渐淘汰,新的因素在不断产生。语法系统内部又由若干个子系统构成,例如语素系统,词类系统,短语系统,句子系统,句群系统,每个子系统可能由若干个孙系统构成。词类系统内部可以分为实词系统和虚词系统。句子系统内部可以分为单句系统,复句系统等等,从而形成一个系统网络。

递归性

递归是说,各种语法结构的关系是有限的,但是在语言单位的组合过程中,可以反复无限地使用这些有限的规则,从而使句法结构复杂化。例如:我买书。/我买一本书。/我买一本有趣的书。/我买一本××写的有趣的书。

如果没有这种“递归性”,某种语法规则在一个句法结构里使用过一次就不能再用了。那么,我们能够造出的句子一定是相当简单而缺乏变化的,一定不能灵活自如的表达各种复杂的思想感情。

稳固性

语法与基本词汇构成语言的基础,具有很大的稳固性。语法也会随着时间的推移而发展演变,但是语法的变化比词汇,语音的变化缓慢得多,而且语法很难受到外来因素的影响而改变。语法的稳固性与语法的抽象性密切相关。语法是一个由各种抽象规则构成的有机系统,许多语法手段和语法范畴历经千百年而很少发生变化。

民族性

每种语言都有明显的民族特点。不仅表现在语音和词汇上,也表现在语法上。汉语的语法比较隐蔽,汉语语法的民族性特点是在同其他语言的比较中得出的。汉语语法中语序和虚词的运用非常重要。印欧语常用词尾的形态变化来表示句法功能的变化。比较:

汉语是SVO型语言:陈述句一般顺序是:主语+动词+宾语。

日语是SOV型语言:陈述句的顺序是:主语+宾语+动词。

以上是为大家介绍的有关新概念英语第一册语法知识,希望可以且还是帮助到大家的学习。更多有关新概念英语的学习知识,可以关注沪江网查询。

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