学术小学生 2022-05-24 14:27
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Section A

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select oneword for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified bya letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on ,Answer Street 2 with a singleline through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.

Let's say you love roller-skating. Just the thought of __26__ on your roller-skates brings asmile to your face. You also know that roller-skating is excellent exercise. You have a __27__attitude toward it.

This description of roller-skating __28__ the three components of an attitude: affect,cognition, and behavior. You love the activity; it's great fun. These feelings __29__ the affectiveor emotional component; they are an important ingredient in attitudes. The knowledge wehave about the object constitutes the cognitive component of an attitude. You understandthe health __30__ that the activity can bring. Finally, attitudes have a behavioral component.Our attitudes __31__ us to go outside to enjoy roller-skating.

Now, we don't want to leave you with the __32__ that these three components always worktogether __33__ . They don't; sometimes they clash. For example, let's say you love pizza(affective component); however, you have high cholesterol and understand (knowledgecomponent) that eating pizza may be bad for your health. Which behavior will your attituderesult in, eating pizza or __34__ it? The answer depends on which component happens to bestronger. If you are walking past a pizza restaurant at lunchtime, your emotions and feelingsprobably will be stronger than your knowledge that pizza may not be the best food for yourhealth. In that instance, you have pizza for lunch. If you are at home trying to decide where togo for dinner, however, the knowledge component may __35__ , and you decide to go whereyou can eat a healthier meal.










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Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

The Changing Generation

[A] It turns out today's teenagers aren't so scary after all. Results of USA WEEKEND'S Teens & Parents survey reveal a generation of young people who get along well with their parents and approve of the way they're being raised. They think of their parents with affection and respect. They speak with Mom or Dad when they have a problem. Most feel that their parents understand them, and they believe their family is the No. 1 priority in their parents, lives. Many even think their parents are cool! Although more than a third have an object in their rooms they would like to keep secret from their parents, rarely is it anything more alarming than a diary or off-color (低俗的) book or CD.

[B] Such results may seem surprising against the background of shocking incidents that color the way the mass media portray the young. In October 2000, , the same month the survey was taken, the Washington-based Center for Media and Public Affairs wrote in its publication Media Monitor that, in a recent month of TV news coverage of American youth, just 2% of teens were shown at home, and just 1% were portrayed in a work setting. In contrast, the criminal justice system accounted for nearly one out of every five visual backgrounds. No wonder parents worry their own kids might spin out of control once they hit the turbulent waters of adolescence.

[C] The overall facts ought to reassure us. The survey shows us that today's teens are affectionate, sensible and far happier than the angry and tortured souls that have been painted for us by stereotypes. From other sources, we also know teenage crime, drug abuse and premarital sex are in general decline. We, of course, need to pay attention to youngsters who are filled with discontent and hostility, but we should not allow these extreme cases to distort our view of most young people.

[D] My own research at the Stanford Center on Adolescence uses in-depth interviews with small samples of youngsters rather than large-scale surveys. Still, in my studies and others I have read, I find the same patterns as in USA WEEKEND'S survey. Today's teenagers admire their parents and welcome parental guidance about important matters such as career choice—though certainly not Mom and Dad's advice on matters of personal

taste, such as music or fashion. When we ask teens to choose a hero,they usually select an older family member rather than a remote public figure. Most teens say they enjoy the company of both parents and friends.

[E] Contrary to some stereotypes, most adolescents believe they must be tolerant of

differences among individuals (though they do not always find this easy in the cliquish (拉帮结派的) environment of high school). Many of them volunteer for community service with disadvantaged people. One prevalent quality we have found in teens, statements about themselves, their friends and their families is a strikingly positive emotional tone. By and large, these are very nice kids, and as the band The Who used to sing, "The kids are alright."

[F] How much is today's spirit of harmony a change from our more turbulent past? A mere generation ago, parent-child relations were described as "the generation gap". Yet even then reports of widespread youth rebellion were overdone: Most kids in the '60s and 70s shared their parents, basic values. Still, it is true that American families are growing closer at the dawn of this new millennium (千年). Perhaps there is less to fight about, with the country in a period of tranquility and the dangers of drug abuse and other unwholesome behavior well known. Perhaps in the face of impersonal and intimidating

globalization, a young person's family feels more like a friendly haven than an oppressive trap. And perhaps parents are acting more like parents than in the recent past. Within just the past five years, I have noticed parents returning to a belief that teenagers need the guidance of elders rather than the liberal, "anything goes" mode of child-rearing that became popular in the second half of the 20th century.

[G] But missing from all these data is the sense that today's young care very much about their country, about the broader civic and political environment, or about the future of their society. They seem to be turning inward—generally in a pro-social manner, certainly with positive benefits for intimate relationships, but too often at the expense of a connection with the present and future world beyond, including the society they will one day inherit.

[H] Recently, we examined more than 400 essays on the "laws of life" that teens from two communities had written as part of an educational program initiated by the John Templeton Foundation in Radnor, Pa. In those essays, and in follow-up interviews with a few of the teenagers, we found lots of insight, positive feeling and inspirational thinking. But we also found little interest in civic life beyond the tight circles of their family and immediate friends.

[I] For example, only one boy said he would like to be president when he grows up. When I was in high school, dozens in my class alone would have answered differently. In fact, other recent studies have found there has never been a time in American history when so small a proportion of young people have sought or accepted leadership roles in local civic organizations. It is also troubling that voting rates among our youngest eligible voters—18- to 24-year-olds—are way down: Little more than one in four now go to the polls, even in national elections, compared with almost twice that many when 18-year-olds were first given the vote.

[J] In our interviews, many students viewed politics with suspicion and distaste. " Most politicians are kind of crooked (不诚实的)" one student declared. Another, discussing national politics, said, “I feel like one person can't do that much, and I get the impression most

people don't think a group of people can do that much." Asked what they would like to change in the world, the students mentioned only personal concerns such as slowing down the pace of life, gaining good friends, becoming more spiritual, becoming either more materially successful or less materially oriented (depending on the student's values), and being more respectful of the Earth, animals and other people. One boy said, "I'd rather be concentrating on artistic efforts than saving the world or something."

[K] It is fine and healthy for teens to cultivate their personal interests, and it is good news when young people enjoy harmonious relations with their family and friends. But there is also a place in a young life for noble purposes that include a dedication to the broader society, a love of country and an aspiration to make their own leadership contributions.

[L] In the past, the young have eagerly participated in national service and civic affairs, often with lots of energy and idealism. If this is not happening today, we should ask why. Our society needs the full participation of its younger citizens if it is to continue to thrive. We know the promise is there—this is a well-grounded, talented, warm-hearted group of youngsters. We have everything to gain by encouraging them to explore the world beyond their immediate experience and to prepare themselves for their turn at shaping that world.

36. Not many young people eligible for voting are interested in local or national elections these days.

37. Parents are concerned that their children may get involved in criminal offences once they reach their teens.

38. Even during the turbulent years of last century, youth rebellion was often exaggerated in the media.

39. Teenagers of today often turn to their parents for advice on such important matters as career choice.

40. The incidence of teenage crime and misbehavior is decreasing nowadays.

41. Young people should have lofty ideals in life and strive to be leaders.

42. Some young people like to keep something to themselves and don't want their parents to know about it.

43. It is beneficial to encourage young people to explore the broader world and get ready to make it a better place.

44. Many teenagers now offer to render service to the needy.

45. Interviews with students find many of them are only concerned about personal matters.

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A. , B. , C. and D.. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet with a single line through the centre.

Passage One Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Manufacturers of products that claim to be environmentally friendly will face tighter rules on how they are advertised to consumers under changes proposed by the Federal Trade Commission.

The commission's revised "Green Guides" warn marketers against using labels that make broad claims, like "eco-friendly". Marketers must qualify their claims on the product packaging and limit them to a specific benefit, such as how much of the product is recycled.

"This is really about trying to cut through the confusion that consumers have when they are buying a product and that businesses have when they are selling a product," said Jon Leibowitz, chairman of the commission.

The revisions come at a time when green marketing is on the rise. According to a new study, the number of advertisements with green messages in mainstream magazines has risen since 1987, and peaked in 2008 at 10.4%. In 2009, the number dropped to 9%. But while the number of advertisements may have dipped, there has been a rapid spread of ecolabeling. There are both good and bad players in the eco-labeling game.

In the last five years or so, there has been an explosion of green claims and environmental claims. It is clear that consumers don't always know what they are getting.

A handful of lawsuits have been filed in recent years against companies accused of using misleading environmental labels. In 2008 and 2009, class-action lawsuits (集体诉讼) were filed against SC Johnson for using "Greenlist" labels on its cleaning products. The lawsuits said that the label was misleading because it gave the impression that the products had been certified by a third party when the certification was the company's own.

"We are very proud of our accomplishments under the Greenlist system and we believe that we will prevail in these cases," Christopher Beard, director of public affairs for SC Johnson, said, while acknowledging that "this has been an area that is difficult to navigate."

Companies have also taken it upon

themselves to contest each other's green claims. David Mallen, associate director of the Council of Better Business Bureau, said in the last two years the organization had seen an increase in the number of claims companies were bringing against each other for false or misleading environmental product claims.  

"About once a week, I have a client that will bring up a new certification I've never even heard of and I'm in this industry, said Kevin Wilhelm, chief executive officer of Sustainable Business Consulting. "It's kind of a Wild West, anybody can claim themselves to be green." Mr. Wilhelm said the excess of labels made it difficult for businesses and consumers to know which labels they should pay attention to.

46. What do the revised "Green Guides" require businesses to do?

A) Manufacture as many green products as possible.

B) Indicate whether their products are recyclable.

C) Specify in what way their products are green.

D) Attach green labels to all of their products.

47. What does the author say about consumers facing an explosion of green claims?

A) They can easily see through the businesses' tricks.

B) They have to spend lots of time choosing products.

C) They have doubt about current green certification.

D) They are not clear which products are truly green.

48. What was SC Johnson accused of in the class-action lawsuits?

A) It gave consumers the impression that all its products were truly green.

B) It gave a third party the authority to label its products as environmentally friendly.

C) It misled consumers to believe that its products had been certified by a third party.

D) It sold cleaning products that were not included in the official "Greenlist".

49. How did Christopher Beard defend his company's labeling practice?

A) There were no clear guidelines concerning green labeling.

B) His company's products had been well received by the public.

C) It was in conformity to the prevailing practice in the market.

D) No law required the involvement of a third party in certification.

50. What does Kevin Wilhelm imply by saying "It's kind of a Wild West" (Line 3,Para. 11)?

A) Businesses compete to produce green products.

B) Each business acts its own way in green labeling.

C) Consumers grow wild with products labeled green.

D) Anything produced in the West can be labeled green.

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

America's education system has become less a ladder of opportunity than a structure to transmit inequality from one generation to the next.

That's why school reform is so critical. This is an issue of equality, opportunity and national conscience. It's not just about education, but about poverty and justice.

It's true that the main reason inner-city schools do poorly isn't teachers' unions, but poverty. Southern states without strong teachers' ,unions have schools at least as awful as those in union states. Some Chicago teachers seem to think that they shouldn't be held accountable until poverty is solved. There're steps we can take that would make some difference, and Mayor Rahm Emanuel is trying some of them—yet the union is resisting.

I'd be sympathetic if the union focused solely on higher compensation. Teachers need to be much better paid to attract the best college graduates to the nation's worst schools. But, instead, the Chicago union seems to be using its political capital primarily to protect weak performers.

There's solid evidence that there are huge differences in the effectiveness of teachers. The gold standard study by Harvard and Columbia University scholars found that even in high-poverty schools, teachers consistently had a huge positive or negative impact.

Get a bottom 1% teacher, and the effect is the same as if a child misses 40% of the school year. Get a teacher from the top 20%, and it's as if a child has gone to school for an extra month or two.

The study found that strong teachers in the fourth through eighth grades raised the skills of their students in ways that would last for decades. Just having a strong teacher for one elementary year left pupils a bit less likely to become mothers as teenagers, a bit more likely to go to college and earning more money at age 28.

How does one figure out who is a weak teacher? Yes, that's a challenge. But researchers are improving systems to measure a teacher's performance throughout the year, and, with three years of data, ifs usually possible to tell which teachers are failing.

Unfortunately, the union in Chicago is insisting that teachers who are laid off—often for being ineffective—should get priority in new hiring. That's an insult to students.

Teaching is so important that it should be like other professions, with high pay and good working conditions but few job protections for bottom performers. This isn't a battle between garment workers and greedy bosses. The central figures in the Chicago schools strike are neither strikers nor managers but 350,000 children. Protecting the union demand sacrifices those students, in effect turning a blind eye to the injustice in the education system.

51. What do we learn about America's education system?

A) It provides a ladder of opportunity for the wealthy.

B) It contributes little to the elimination of inequality.

C) It has remained basically unchanged for generations.

D) It has brought up generations of responsible citizens.

52. What is chiefly responsible for the undesirable performance of inner-city schools?

A) Unqualified teachers.

C) Unfavorable learning environment.

B) Lack of financial resources.

D) Subconscious racial discrimination.

53. What does the author think the union should do to win popular support?

A) Assist the city government in reforming schools.

C) Demand higher pay for teachers.

B) Give constructive advice to inner-city schools.

D) Help teachers improve teaching.

54. What is the finding of the gold standard study by Harvard and Columbia University scholars?

A) Many inner-city school teachers are not equal to their jobs.

B) A large proportion of inner-city children often miss classes.

C) Many students are dissatisfied with their teachers.

D) Student performance has a lot to do with teachers.

55. Why does the author say the Chicago unions demand is an insult to students?

A) It protects incompetent teachers at the expense of students.

B) It underestimates students, ability to tell good teachers from poor ones.

C) It makes students feel that they are discriminated against in many ways.

D) It totally ignores students,initiative in the learning process.

6月大学英语六级阅读真题及答案解 篇1

26 [N]空格前的 of 表明此处应填入动名词,与介词 on 搭配。空格后的 roller-skates 指“溜冰鞋”,词库的动名词中,strapping 可与 on 搭配,后接表示鞋子的宾语,意为“用带子系上(鞋子)”,符合此处语境。

27[I]此处需填入修饰 attitude 的词,由 a 可知需填入的单词是辅音字母开头的。上文提到“你”喜欢溜旱冰,穿上鞋子就微笑。“你”同样知道溜旱冰是很好的运动,因此这种态度是积极正面的,故填入 positive “积极的”。

28[D]此处应填入谓语动词,由主语 description 可知是第三人称单数形式。文章开头的 Let's say...表明第一段对溜旱冰的描绘是举例,因此此处符合语义逻辑的是illustrates“说明,阐明”,该处句子的意思是“对溜旱冰的描述说明了态度有三个组成部分”。

29[C]此处应填入谓语动词,由主语 feelings 可知是动词原形。本句要说明态度的第一个部分 affect “情感”,主语 these feelings 指的是对溜旱冰这项活动的喜爱之情,

highlight “强调,突出”与宾语 the affective or emotional component“情感或感情部分”搭配合理。而 prevail“流行,盛行;获胜”是不及物动词,prompt “推动;提示”在语义上也不合逻辑。

30[B]空格在名词 health 之后,可能填入副词或名词。因为空格后的 that the activity can bring“这项活动可以带来的”是定语从句,故应填入名词,充当从句先行词。第一段提到“你”知道溜旱冰是极好的运动(excellent exercise),因此本句填入语义相关的 benefits “好处”。

31[L]此处应填入谓语动词,构成~sb. to do sth.结构,主语 attitudes 表明该词是原形。符合要求的是 prompt “促使”,句子意思是“我们的态度促使我们去外面享受溜旱冰的乐趣”。

32 [E]空格前的 the 表明此处应填入名词,空格后 that 引导的是同位语从句,意为“这三个组成部分总是协调统一的”。impression“印象”符合上下文语义,指“我们不想给你留下这种印象”,呼应后文“它们并不是”。

33[H]空格在 work together 之后,故应填入副词。perfectly“完美地”符合语境,指这三个部分配合完美。上下文没有表示动作先后的描述,故 primarily“主要地,首先”不对。

34 [A]由 or 可知此处应填入与 eating 并列的动名词,意思上表示相反的情况,因此 avoiding“避免”正确,指“吃比萨还是不吃”。

35[J]空格前的 may 表明此处应填入动词原形,且是不及物动词。上一句提到情感部分可能更强的情形(probably will be stronger),本句指认知部分更强的情况,故填入与 be stronger 近义的 prevail“获胜”。

36 [I]【译文】如今很多符合资格的年轻选民对地方选举或者全国大选不感兴趣。

【定位解析】根据 eligible for voting 和 national elections 查找到 I 段最后一句,该句提到最年轻的(18 至 24 岁)合格选民的投票率非常低。即使是全国大选,他们之中也只有稍多于四分之一的人会去投票。题目的 young people eligible for voting 对应原文中的 youngest eligible voters,而 national elections 则为文中原词复现,故本题答案为 I 段。


【定位解析】根据 concerned, criminal offences 以及 reach their teens,可查找到 B 段最后两句。这两句提到在跟年轻人有关的电视新闻画面中,有 20%与刑事案件有关,父母总是担心自己的小孩到了青春叛逆期会变得难以管控,题目是该处原文的同义表达。本题中的 criminal offences 对应原文的 criminal justice system, concern 对应原文的 worry,而 once they reach their teens 则是 once they hit the turbulent waters of adolescence 的同义转述,故本题答案为 B 段。

38 [F]【译文】即使在上世纪动荡不安的年代里,年轻人的反叛也经常被媒体描述得太夸张。

【定位解析】根据 youth rebellion 和 exaggerated 可查找到 F 段第 3 句。该句提到,即使在当时,所谓的“大规模的年轻人叛逆”也被媒体报道夸大了。本题的 exaggerated 是原文 overdone 的同义表达(overdo 意为“对……过于夸张”),youth rebellion 则为原词复现,所以 F 段为正确答案。


【定位解析】根据题目中的 turn to their parents for advice 和 career choice 可查找到 D 段第 3 句。该句提到,现在的青少年很钦佩他们的父母,也很乐于在一些重大的事情上,比如在选择职业时,接受父母的引导。题目是该处原文的同义表述,turn to their parents for advice 对应原文的 welcome parental guidance,而 career choice 为原词复现,故本题答案为 D 段。

40 [C]【译文】青少年犯罪和品行不端的现象正在减少。

【定位解析】根据题目中的 teenage crime 和 decreasing 查找到 C 段第 3 句。该句提到,犯罪、药物滥用和婚前性行为这些现象在青少年群体中普遍都有所减少。本题中的 decreasing 是原文 in general decline 的同义转述,misbehavior 是对原文 drug abuse and premarital sex 的概括,而 teenage crime 为原词复现,题目正是对该句原文的同义表述,所以 C 段为正确答案。


【定位解析】根据 lofty ideals 和 leaders,查找到 K 段第 2 句。该句指出,年轻人也应当要有一些崇高的目标,包括愿意为这个更广大的社会做出贡献、热爱国家、心怀成为未来领导者的远大抱负。题目中的 lofty ideals 是原文 noble purposes 的同义转述,strive to be leaders 对应文中的 make their own leadership contributions,故 K 段为正确答案。

42 [A]【译文】有些年轻人会把某些东西藏起来不让父母发现。

【定位解析】根据 keep some to themselves 查找到 A 段末句。该句指出,虽然有超过三分之一的青少年会在房间里藏一些不想让父母发现的东西,但也不过就是些低俗的刊物或者 CD 罢了。题目中的 keep some to themselves 是对原文 keep secret from their parents 的同义转述,故选 A 段。

43 [L]【译文】鼓励年轻人探索更广阔的世界并为将世界变得更美好而做好准备,这是有益的。

【定位解析】根据题目中的. encourage、explore、world 可查找到 L 段的最后一句。该句指出,鼓励年轻人探索超越直接经验的世界,让他们为改变世界而做好准备,我们会有无穷的收获。题目中的 It is beneficial 是对文中 We have everything to gain 的同义转述,explore the broader world 和原文中的 explore the world beyond their immediate experience 对应,make it a better world 即原文中的 shaping that world,故正确答案为 L 段。

44 [E]【译文】现在很多青少年都会为需要帮助的人提供服务。

【定位解析】根据 service 和 the needy 查找到 E 段第 2 句。该句指出,很多青少年都会自愿参加帮助弱势群体的社区服务。题目中的 the needy 是原文 disadvantaged people 的同义替换,故答案为 E 段。


【定位解析】根据题目中的 Interviews 和 personal matters 查找到 J 段第 4 句。J 段讲到被采访的学生的反馈,当被问及想有什么改变时,学生们都只提到了跟自身有关的事,即只关注自己的事。题目正是对此处的同义概括,personal matters 是原文 personal concerns 的同义表达,故正确答案为 J 段。

46 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 the revised “Green Guides”定位至第 2 段。

【解析】本题问“绿色指南”修订版要求商家怎么做。第 2 段首句指出联邦贸易委员会警告商家不得使用诸如“生态友好的”之类表达宽泛的标签。第 2 句指出商家须具体怎么做,包括要证明其产品包装上的描述属实、明确具体的益处。C 项“具体说明其产品为何是绿色的”与原文吻合,其中 Specify 为原文中 specific 的同义表达,故选 C 项。

【干扰项排除】A 项“制造尽可能多的绿色产品”并非联邦贸易委员会的要求。联邦贸易委员会要求商家使其产品的益处具体化,如写明产品中有多少可回收成分,而非 B 项“指出其产品是否可回收”。文章并未提及 D 项“所有产品贴上绿色标签”。

47 [D]【定位】根据题干中的 an explosion of green claims 定位至第 6 段。

【解析】本题问作者对于消费者在面对绿色环保宣传泛滥时的表现有何看法。第 6 段首句指出在过去 5 年左右的时间里,声称绿色环保的宣传呈爆发状态。第 2 句指出消费者并不总是了解他们要购买的产品。D 项“他们并不清楚哪种产品才是真正绿色环保的”与原文相符,故为答案。

【干扰项排除】A 项“他们能轻易看穿营销陷阱”与文中说的“消费者不总是了解”不符。上文虽提到消费者选购产品时会觉得迷惑,但不能由此得出 B 项“他们必须花费大量时间来挑选产品”。文中有两处提到“绿色认证”,其一是庄臣公司遭到集体诉讼的事例,但并未提及“集体诉讼”是消费者发起的,故不能得出 C 项“他们对当前的绿色认证存在疑虑”。

48 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 SC Johnson 和 the class-action lawsuits 定位至第 7 段第 2 句。

【解析】本题询问在集体诉讼案中,庄臣公司被指控的罪名是什么。第 7 段第 2 句指出,2008 到 2009 年间,庄臣公司遭到集体诉讼,被指在其清洁产品上使用“绿色清单”标签。第 3 句指出诉讼认为该标签具有误导性,原因是“会使消费者误认为该产品已通过第三方认证”。C 项“它误导消费者相信他们的产品已获得第三方认证”与原文意思一致,其中 misled 对应原文的 misleading,故 C 项为答案。

【干扰项排除】A 项“它让消费者认为其所有产品都是真正的绿色产品”,涉案的只是庄臣公司的清洁产品,并未说是其所有产品,A 项可排除。本文未提及庄臣公司“授权第三方为其产品打上环保标签”和“销售不在官方绿色清单中的清洁产品”,故 B、D 两项也可排除。

49[A]【定位】根据题干中的 Christopher Beard 定位至第 8 段。

【解析】本题询问 Christopher Beard 如何为该公司的标签行为作辩解。本段讲到

Christopher Beard 对本公司在绿色清单体系所取得的成就感到骄傲,并且相信他们能在这些“集体诉讼”案子里胜出,然而他也承认这个(绿色标签)领域很难规范、指引。由此可知,Christopher Beard 认为那时候在绿色标签事项上没有明确的指导方针,刚好对应文章开头说的如今美国联邦贸易委员会关于绿色标签的提议,因此 A 项为答案。  【干扰项排除】虽然使用生态环保标签是市场风行的做法,但是无法确定给产品加上自己公司的认证这一做法是否普遍,而且 C 项“符合市场的普遍做法”也不是 Christopher Beard 的辩护观点,故不选。文章未提及 B 项“其公司产品广为公众接受”和 D 项“法律不要求第三方认证”,也可排除。

50[B]【定位】根据题干直接定位至第 11 段第 2 句。

【解析】本题询问凯文?威廉引用的 Wild West 所指的意义。第 11 段第 2 句先指出当前绿色认证的乱象犹如往昔的“西大荒”,随后指出具体乱在哪些方面:人人都可以宣称自己是环保的,与历史上美国西部拓荒时期的无政府混乱状态如出一辙,因此 B 项“每家公司在绿色标签这方面都有自己的做法”与该句表述相符,为本题答案。

【干扰项排除】文章指出各公司竞相推出各自的绿色环保宣传或广告,而非“竞相生产绿色产品”,故排除 A 项。C 项“消费者对有绿色标签的产品很狂热”、D 项“西部地区所生产的任何产品都可以标记为绿色产品”曲解了 “the Wild West”中 wild 和 west 的意义。

51[B]【定位】根据题干中的 America's education system 定位至第 1 段。

【解析】本题询问文章对美国教育系统的评价。文章首段即明确指出作者的观点:美国的教育系统不再是通往机遇的阶梯,已然成为将不平等代代相传的体系。可见作者认为教育原本具有的消除不平等的功能已不存在,B 项“对消除不平等毫无作用”为答案。

【干扰项排除】第 1 句指出美国的教育系统不再是通往机遇的阶梯,但并非变成了“为富人提供通往机遇的阶梯”,故排除 A 项。后半句指出教育系统变成了将不平等代代相传的体系,并不是指教育系统不变,C 项“几代人以来基本上保持不变”曲解其意,故排除;文章未提及教育体系具有 D 项“将几代人培养成有责任感的公民”的功能,也可排除。 52 [B]【定位】根据题干中的 inner-city schools 定位至第 3 段第 1 句。

【解析】本题询问内城区学校表现不佳的主要原因。第 3 段首句指出,内城区学校表现糟糕的主要原因不是教师工会,而是 poverty(贫穷)。与 poverty 同义的 B 项“缺乏财政来源”为答案。题干中的 is chiefly responsible for 对应原文的 main reason, undesirable performance 对应 do poorly。

【干扰项排除】原文中只是提到主要原因不在于教师工会,而是贫穷,A 项“不合格教师”非主要原因。文章内容未涉及 C 项“不良的学习环境”和 D 项“潜意识的种族歧视”,也可排除。

53[C]【定位】根据题干中的 the union 及题干询问内容可定位至第 4 段第 1、2 句。

【解析】本题询问作者的观点,工会应该如何作为来赢得公众支持。上段末尾提到工会抵制市长采取的一些措施,本段第 1 句提出了作者的观点:如果工会只是致力于获取更高的补偿,他会赞同(sympathetic)。第 2 句进一步说明为什么工会应该致力于获取更高的补偿金:只有高薪才能够吸引优秀人才到贫困地区的学校任教。因此工会应该“为教师争取更高的报酬”,C 项正确。

【干扰项排除】工会抵制了市长采取的一些措施,A 项“帮助市政府改革学校”可排除。基于本文,教师工会的职能主要是为教师提供保护和争取福利,不包括 B 项“为内城区学校提供建设性的建议”和 D 项“帮助教师提高教学质量”。

54 [D]【定位】根据题干中的 the gold standard study, Harvard and Columbia University scholars 定位至第 5 段第 2 句。

【解析】本题询问哈佛大学和哥伦比亚大学的学者开展的金标准研究的结果。因此该句 found 后的宾语从句即为答案:即使是在极度贫困地区的学校,教师也总是会对教育产生巨大的,或积极或消极的影响。因此,D 项“学生的表现与教师密切相关”为答案,体现了教师对教育所产生的影响。题干中的 finding 是原文 found 的词性转换。

【干扰项排除】文章中提及部分内城区学校的师资不佳,但并非该研究发现的结果,因此 A 项“很多内城区学校的教师无法胜任他们的工作”可排除。文章未提及内城区学校学生的行为以及他们对教师的态度,因此 B 项“大部分内城区的孩子经常翘课”和 C 项“很多学生对他们的教师不满”也可排除。

55 [A]【定位】根据题干中的 Chicago union's, demand 和 an insult to students 定位至最后三段。

【解析】本题询问为什么说芝加哥工会的要求是对学生的侮辱。第 9 段指出芝加哥工会坚持认为那些被解聘的(通常是不称职的)教师拥有优先聘用权,作者认为这对学生是个侮辱,第 10 和第 11 段对此作具体解释,指出不应过度保护这些人的工作权益,一旦满足工会要求、保护这些人的权益,学生的权益就会被牺牲掉。因此 A 项“以牺牲学生为代价保护不称职的教师”为答案,at the expense of 是原文中 sacrifices 的同义转换。

【干扰项排除】文章未涉及工会对学生辨别和学习能力的评估,B 项“低估了学生辨别好老师和坏老师的能力”、D 项“完全忽视学生在学习过程中的主动性”均可排除。文章未提及歧视问题,C 项“让学生感到在多方面遭受歧视”也可排除。