Sarah 2021-12-15 11:53
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1. 中国有 14.04 亿人,是世界上人口最多的国家。

China is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.

2. 中国国土面积约 960 万平方公里,陆地面积位居世界第三位。

Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's third-largest state by land area.

3. 中国下辖 22 个省, 5 个自治区和 4 个直辖市以及香港和澳门特别行政区,对台湾拥有主权。

It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan.

4. 中国在华北平原肥沃的黄河盆地成为了世界上最早的文明古国之一。

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.

5. 自那时起,中国历经多次领土扩张,分裂和重新统一。

Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times.

6. 自从 1978 年实行经济改革以来,中国的经济增速一直位居世界前列。

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing.

7. 截止到 2016 年,按名义 gdp 计算,中国成为世界第二大经济体,按购买力平价计算,中国是世界第一大经济体。

As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).

8. 中国还是世界第一大货物出口国和第二大货物进口国。

China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.

9. 中国是一个强国,在亚洲是一个区域大国,已经被定性为一个潜在的超级大国。

China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.

10. 甲骨文是中国目前发现的最古老的汉字,现代汉字就是直接从甲骨文演变而来的。

The oracle bone script represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.

11. 周国被削弱后许多国家最终独立,在为期 300 年的春秋时期相互交战不断。

Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period.

12. 到了公元前 5 到公元前 3 世纪的战国时期,在今天的中国版图上出现了战国七雄。

By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries bce, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China.

13. 中国的第一个皇帝秦始皇比较出名的地方是将战国时期各国的城墙连接起来形成了长城,不过,如今大部分长城都是明朝修建的。

China’ s First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.

14. 秦国于公元前 221 年打败了其他六国,建立了第一个统一的中国,标志着战国时期的结束。

The Warring States period ended in 221 bce after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state.

15. 他在全国实行了法家改革,比较著名的就是强行统一汉字,度量衡和货币。

He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, and currency.

16. 秦朝仅仅持续了 15 年,在始皇帝去世后,由于他采取的严酷专制政策造成大规模反抗,秦朝很快就覆亡了。

The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.

17. 汉朝统治下的中国成为当时世界上最大的经济体,尽管汉朝最开始实施去中央集权化并正式废弃秦朝的法家理念,采取儒家思想,但是汉朝以及之后的朝代依然继续采用秦朝的法家体制机制和政策。

Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.

18. 汉朝灭亡后,出现了“三国争霸” 的时期,核心人物后来成为了中国四大名著之一《三国演义》里的人物原型。

After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature.

19. 隋朝让汉人重新执掌中国的统治权,实施了农业和经济改革,修建了大运河,并扶持佛教的发展。

The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism.

20. 在之后的唐宋时期,中国的经济,科技和文化进入了发展的黄金时期。大唐帝国恢复了对西域和丝绸之路的控制,使得长安成为一个大都会。

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age.The Tang Empire returned control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center.

21. 但是,公元 8 世纪爆发的安史之乱对唐朝造成重创,唐朝由此衰弱。

However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century.

22. 907 年,地方军事长官变得难以掌控,唐朝彻底瓦解了。

In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.

23. 宋朝是世界历史上第一个发行纸币的政府,也是中国第一个建立常设海军的政体,这主要得益于发达的造船业和海上贸易。

The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.

24. 公元 10 到 11 世纪,中国人口翻了一番,达到约 1 亿人,这主要得益于中国中部和南部水稻种植面积的扩大和大量粮食盈余。

Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.

25. 在唐朝蓬勃发展的佛教到了宋朝也出现了复兴。在宋朝时期,山水画艺术和瓷器工艺达到了新水平,更加成熟和复杂,哲学和艺术领域由此迎来了鼎盛发展。

The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity.

26. 在 13 世纪,蒙古族统治了中国。1271 年,蒙古领袖忽必烈汗建立了元朝,于 1279 年征服了宋朝的最后残余力量。

The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279.

27. 在蒙古入侵之前,宋朝统治下的中国人口为 1.2 亿,到 1300 年人口统计时下降到了 6000 万。

Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.

28. 在明朝统治时期,中国再次迎来一个黄金时期,建立了当时世界上相当强大的海军,经济繁荣昌盛,艺术和文化也蓬勃发展。

Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.

29. 郑和下西洋的寻宝之旅正是在这一时期进行的,最远到达了非洲。

It was during this period that Zheng He led treasure voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.

30. 1644 年,李自成率领的农民起义军联盟攻占北京城,北京陷落后,崇祯皇帝自缢身亡。

In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell.

31. 满族人成立的清朝当时雨明朝将领吴三桂联手推翻了李自成短命的“大顺王朝”,随后控制了北京, 北京由此成为了清朝的首都。

The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

32. 清朝从 1644 年持续到 1912 年,是中国的最后一个帝制王朝。

The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China.

33. 在征服明朝的过程中, 2500 万人丧生,中国经济实力大幅下降。

Its conquest of the Ming cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.

34. 当时加强了中央集权统治,通过重农轻商政策,海禁和文字狱等意识形态控制来打压反清情绪,由此造成了社会和技术发展停滞不前。

The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.

35. 在 19 世纪中叶,清朝在与英法鸦片战争中经历了西方帝国主义的侵略。

In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France.

36. 当时中国被迫赔款,开放商埠,允许外国公民有治外法权,并根据第一个不平等条约,即 1842 年签订的《南京条约》把香港割让给英国。

China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to theBritish under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties.

37. 中日甲午战争后,清政府在朝鲜半岛失势,并将台湾割让给日本。

The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.

38. 19 世纪的洋务运动虽然取得了初步成功,但是 19 世纪 80 年代和 90 年代军事上遭受的一连串挫败也让这种成功前功尽弃。

The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.

39. 19 世纪,中国出现了人口大迁徙。除了人口迁移造成的损失外,当时还天灾人祸不断,如: 1876-1879 年北方的大饥荒造成了 900-1300 万人丧生。

In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died.

40. 1899-1901 年的义和团运动旨在反对外国入侵,但是时运不济,这场运动进一步削弱了清朝的实力。

The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty.

41. 在他们当政期间,中国经济蓬勃发展, 1.5 亿农民摆脱贫困,经济年均增速保持在 11.2%的水平。

Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.

42. 中国 2001 年正式加入世贸组织,此后保持了经济的快速发展。

The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth in the 2000s.

43. 但是,经济的快速发展对国家的资源和环境带来了巨大的压力,造成很多人被迫迁移。

However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement.

44. 中国地域辽阔,地貌多元,北部干旱,有戈壁滩和塔克拉玛干沙漠,南部潮湿,有亚热带森林。

China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.

45. 喜马拉雅、喀喇昆仑、帕米尔和天上山脉将中国与南亚和中亚大部分地区分割开来。

The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia.

46. 长江和黄河分别是世界上第三和第六长的河流,从青藏高原流到人口稠密的东部沿海地区。

The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixthlongest in the world, respectively, run from the T P to the densely populated eastern seaboard.

47. 中国沿太平洋海岸线长 14,500 公里,有渤海、黄海、东海和南海。

China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas.

48. 中国通过哈萨克边界与欧亚草原相连。欧亚草原从新石器时代开始就通过草原之路成为东西方交流的动脉。草原之路也是路上丝绸之路的前身。

China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).

49. 中华人民共和国按陆地面积计算是仅次于俄罗斯的世界第二大国,根据总面积定义的不同,中国总面积位居世界第三位(排在俄罗斯和加拿大之后) 或第四位(排在俄罗斯、加拿大和美国之后) 。

The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia, and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States

50. 中国的陆地边界长度居世界首位, 从鸭绿江到北部湾,全长为 22,117 公里。

China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin.

51. 中国的邻国数量为 14 个, 与俄罗斯并列世界首位。

China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14.

52. 中国占据东亚大部分面积, 在东南亚与越南、老挝和缅甸接壤。此外,中国的海上邻国包括韩国、日本、越南和菲律宾。

China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia. Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

53. 中国领土位于北纬 18-54 度、东经 73-135 度之间。

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E.

54. 中国国土辽阔,地貌差别很大。 在东部黄海和东海沿岸,有广袤的冲积平原,人口众多;在北部内蒙古高原的边缘,主要是广阔的草原。

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.

55. 华南地区主要是丘陵和海拔较低的山脉,而中东部地区则有沿着中国两大河流—长江和黄河形成的三角洲。

Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.

56. 中国西部坐落着主要的山脉,最为著名的是喜马拉雅山。 在北部较为干旱的地区以高原地貌为主。

To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north.

57. 世界最高峰—珠穆朗玛峰海拔 8848 米,位于中国与尼泊尔交界处。

The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the SinoNepalese border.

58. 中国海拔最低的地方是位于吐鲁番盆地的艾丁湖, 湖底干涸, 海拔负 154米, 是世界上海拔第三低的地方。

The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (-154m) in the Turpan Depression.

59. 中国气候的主要特点是分为干季和湿润的季风季,这使得冬夏温差明显。

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.

60. 冬天,来自高纬度的北风干冷,夏天,来自低纬度沿海地区的南风湿热。

In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.

61. 由于中国地形非常复杂, 各地气候差别很大。

The climate in Chinadiffers from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.

62. 中国的一大环境问题是沙漠化面积不断扩大,特别是戈壁滩。

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert.

63. 尽管自 20 世纪 70 年代开始的防护林带建设降低了沙暴发生的频率,但是每年春季华北地区依然尘暴不断,这主要是因为干旱期延长,农业生产方式不当造成的。

Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring.

64. 2007 年,中国当时的环保监管部门环保总局称, 中国每年土地沙漠化的面积达到 4,000 平方公里。

China's environmental watchdog, the then SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km2 (1,500 sq mi) per year to desertification.

65. 水质、土壤侵蚀和污染防控已经成为中国与他国关系的重点问题。

Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries.

66. 喜马拉雅山脉冰川融化有可能会让数以亿计的人们面临用水短缺的问题。

Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.

67. 中国是 17 个生物多样性最为丰富的国家之一,位于世界两大生态区:古北区和东洋区。

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya zone.

68. 按照一种衡量标准,中国拥有超过 34,687 种动物和维管植物, 生物多样性位居世界第三位, 仅次于巴西和哥伦比亚。

By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the thirdmost biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.

69. 中国拥有至少 551 种哺乳动物(位居世界第三位) 、1,221 种鸟类(位居世界第八位) 、 424 种爬行动物(位居世界第七位) 和 333 种两栖动物(位居世界第七位) 。

China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh).

70. 中国是除热带之外在每一个类别中生物种类都最为丰富的国家。

China is the most biodiverse country in each category outside the tropics.

71. 中国人口数量居世界首位,中国的野生动物与他们共享栖息地,也承受着 人类带来的巨大压力。

Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of homo sapiens(智人(现代人类) the kind or species of human that exists now) .

72. 在中国至少 840 种动物物种面临威胁、处境易危或者濒临本地灭绝,这主要是因为各种人类活动造成的,如:破坏栖息地、污染、为获取食物、毛皮和中药药材而进行的偷猎活动。

At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.

73. 濒危野生动物受到法律保护, 截止到 2005 年,中国有 2349 个自然保护区,总面积达到 1.4995 亿公顷, 占中国陆地总面积的 15%。白鱀豚最近已经被确认灭绝。

Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95

million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.[159] The Baiji has recently been confirmed extinct.

74. 中国有超过 32,000 种维管植物和多种森林。

China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, and is home to a variety of forest types.

75. 中国北部主要分布有冷针叶林, 为麋鹿和亚洲黑熊等动物和 120 多种鸟类提供了栖息地。

Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species.

76. 在中国中部和南部主要分布有亚热带森林,这里有多达 14.6 万种植物物种。

Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora.

77. 热带和季节性雨林主要分布在云南和海南岛,但是这里的动植物物种站到中国动植物物种总量的 25%。

Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China.

78. 近数十年来,中国遭受了严重的环境恶化和污染问题。

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.

79. 尽管 1979 年通过的《环保法》 等法律法规非常严格,但是执行不力,地方民众和政府官员为了促进经济的快速发展经常置这些法律法规于不顾。

While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favor of rapideconomic development.

80. 在中国城市空气污染是一个严重的健康问题。 2013 年世界银行估计,世界上污染最严重的 20 个城市中有 16 个位于中国。

Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country; the World Bank estimated in 2013 that 16 of the world's 20 most-polluted cities are located in China.

81. 中国二氧化碳排放量排在世界首位。 水污染问题也和严重:截止到 2011 年底, 受工业和农业废弃物污染的河流已经占到河流总数的 40%。

China is the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter. The country also has significant water pollution problems: 40% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste by late 2011.

82. 在中国,重金属也造成环境污染。重金属污染是一种非有机的化学性危害,主要由铅、铬、砷、 镉、汞、锌、铜、 钴和镍引起。

In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution. Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni).

83. 其中的五种金属是中国的主要重金属污染物。重金属污染物主要来自于采 矿、污水灌溉、含金属产品制造以及其他相关生产活动。

Five metals among them are the key heavy metal pollutants in China. Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities.

84. 高水平的重金属暴露还会造成永久性的智力和发育障碍,包括阅读和学习障碍、行为障碍、听力丧失、注意力不集中、视觉和运动机能发育受损。

High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning

disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function.

85. 但是,中国是世界上可再生能源以及可再生能源商业化的第一大投资国,仅 2011 年就为此投入了 520 亿美元。

However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone.

86. 中国是可再生能源技术的制造大国,对大规模可再生能源项目进行大力投资。

It is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects.

87. 到 2015 年,可再生能源对中国能源消费的贡献率超过 24%,水电贡献最大:中国水电装机容量达到 197 吉瓦,位居世界首位。

By 2015, over 24% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric power: a total installed capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric power producer in the world.

88. 中国的光伏发电和风力发电装机容量也均居世界首位。

China also has the largest power capacity of installed solar photovoltaics system and wind power system in the world.

89. 2011 年,中国政府宣布计划在今后 10 年间斥资 4 万亿元进行水利基础设施和海水淡化项目建设,并到 2020 年建成一个防洪抗旱体系。

In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$619 billion) in water infrastructure and desalination projects over a tenyear period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020.

90. 2013 年,中国开始实施一项为期 5 年、总投资额为 2770 亿美元的项目,来减少空气污染, 特别是中国北部地区的空气污染。

In 2013, China began a five-year, US$277 billion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country.

91. 中华人民共和国分为 22 个省、 5 个自治区(每个区用一个主要的少数民族命名) 、 4 个直辖市和 2 个特别行政区(享有一定程度的政治自治权)。

The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) which enjoy a degree of political autonomy.

92. 这 31 个省级区划可以统称为“中国大陆或内地” ,这种叫法通常不包括香港和澳门特别行政区。从地理分布来看, 31 个省级区划可以分为 6 个地区,即, 华北、东北、华东、中南、西南和西北。

These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions can be grouped into six regions, including North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China and Northwest China.

93. 中国目前的外交政策是以周恩来总理提出的“和平共处五项原则” 为基础,秉承“和而不同” 的理念,鼓励意识形态不同的国家之间发展外交关系。

Much of current Chinese foreign policy is based on Premier Zhou Enlai'sFive Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.

94. 近几十年来,中国在呼吁亚太邻国间建立自贸区并签署安全协定方面发挥了日益重要的作用。

In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours.

95. 中国于 2001 年 12 月 11 日成为世贸组织的成员, 2004 年,中国提议设立全新的“东亚峰会” 作为讨论地区安全问题的论坛。

China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001. In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues.

96. 东亚峰会包括东盟 10+3、印度、澳大利亚和新西兰,于 2005 年举行了第一次峰会。

The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005.

97. 美国是中国最为重要的出口市场,中国对美国有很大的贸易顺差。

China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market.

98. 21 世纪第二个十年早期,美国的政治家们称人民币被人为严重贬值,让中国获得贸易优势, 称这是不公平的。

In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.

99. 近数十年以来,中国一直奉行与非洲国家开展贸易往来和双边合作的政策。 2012 年,中非贸易超过 1600 亿美元。

In recent decades, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion.

100. 中国还进一步加强了与南美主要经济体的关系, 成为巴西的第一大贸易伙伴,并与阿根廷建立了战略关系。

China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.



版画 engraving

彩塑 painted sculpture

瓷器 porcelain; china

刺绣 embroidery

宫灯/花灯 palace/festival lantern

剪纸 papercutting

景德镇瓷器 Jingdezhen porcelain

木/石/竹刻 wood/stone/bamboo carving

唐三彩 tri-colored glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty

中国水墨画 Chinese ink and wash painting

陶器 pottery

微雕 miniature engraving

象牙雕刻 ivory carving

京剧脸谱facial make-up in Peking Opera

木刻版画 wood engraving

木偶戏 puppet show

独角戏 monodrama; one-man show

皮影戏 shadow play; leather-silhouette show

京剧 Peking Opera

秦腔 Shaanxi Opera

单口相声 monologue comic talk

双口相声 witty dialogue

口技 vocal imitation

说书 monologue story-telling

杂技 acrobatic performance

叠罗汉 making a human pyramid

特技 stunt

哑剧 dumb show; mime

马戏 circus performance

春节 the Spring Festival

元宵 sweet dumplings made of glutinous rice flour

秧歌 yangko

年底大扫除 the year-end household cleaning

灯谜 lantern riddle

登高 hill climbing

拜年 paying a New Year call

鞭炮 firecracker

年画 (traditional) New Year picture

舞龙 dragon dance

春联 Spring Festival couplets

元宵节 the Lantern Festival

植树节 Tree-Planting Day

除夕 New Year's Eve

端午节 the Dragon Boat Festival

龙灯舞 dragon lantern dance

庙会 temple fair

年夜饭 family reunion dinner on New Year's Eve

清明节 Tomb-Sweeping Day

扫墓 pay respects to a dead person at his tomb

赏月 admire the moon

压岁钱 money given to children as a lunar New Year gift; gift money

辞旧迎新 ring out the old year and ring in the new year

中秋节 Mid-Autumn Day

重阳节 the Double Ninth Festival

十二生肖 Chinese Zodiac

七夕节 Double Seventh Day

粽子 traditional Chinese rice-pudding; zong zi

中餐烹饪 Chinese cuisine

粤菜Cantonese cuisine

淮扬菜 Huaiyang cuisine

鲁菜 Shandong cuisine

川菜 Sichuan cuisine

佛教 Buddhism

佛寺 Buddhist temple

道教 Taoism

道观 Taoist temple

道士 Taoist priest

儒教 Confucianism

儒家文化 Confucian culture

墨家 Mohism

法家 Legalism

孔庙 Confucian Temple

孔子 Confucius

《春秋》 The Spring and Autumn Annals

《史记》 Historical Records

《诗经》 The Book of Songs

《书经》 The Book of History

《易经》 The Book of Changes

《礼记》 The Book of Rites

四书 The Four Books

《大学》 The Great Learning

《中庸》 The Doctrine of the Mean

《论语》 The Analects of Confucius

《孟子》 The Mencius

《山海经》 The Classic of Mountains and Rivers

《本草纲目》 Compendium of Materia Medica

《资治通鉴》 History as a Mirror

《西厢记》 The Romance of West Chamber

《西行漫记》 Red Star Over China

《三国演义》 The Romance of the Three Kingdoms

《水浒传》 Water Margin

《聊斋志异》 Strange Tales of a Lonely Studio

《红楼梦》 A Dream of Red Mansions; The Story of the Stone

《西游记》 Pilgrimage to the West; A Journey to the West

武侠小说 martial arts novel

言情小说 romantic fiction

八股文 eight-part essay; stereotyped writing

五言绝句 five-character quatrain

七言律诗 seven-character octave

民间艺术 folk art

高雅艺术 refined art

戏剧艺术 theatrical art

电影艺术 film art

爱国主义精神 patriotism

文化产业 cultural industry

文化事业 cultural undertaking

文化交流 cultural exchange

文化冲突 cultural shock; cultural conflict

乡村文化 rural culture

民族文化 national culture

表演艺术 performing art

文化底蕴 cultural deposit

华夏祖先 the Chinese ancestor

同宗同源 be of the same origin

中国文学 Chinese literature

中国武术 Chinese martial arts; Kung Fu

中国书法 Chinese calligraphy

火药 gunpowder

印刷术 printing; art of printing

造纸术 papermaking technology

指南针 compass

中国结 Chinese knot

青铜器 bronze ware

武术门派 style/school of martial arts

习武健身 practice martial arts for fitness

古代格斗术ancient form of combat

武林高手 top martial artist

气功 qigong

无与伦比的文学创作 unmatched literary creation

汉语的四声调 the four tones of Chinese

工艺 workmanship; craftsmanship

手工艺品 handicraft

泥人 clay figurine

苏绣 Suzhou embroidery

寓言 fable

神话 mythology

传说 legend

公历 the Gregorian calendar

阴历 the Lunar calendar

天干 Heavenly Stems

篆刻 seal cutting

闰年 leap year

二十四节气 24 solar terms

传统节日 traditional holiday

才子佳人 gifted scholar and beautiful lady

中华文明 Chinese civilization

中外学者 Chinese and overseas scholar

寺庙 temple

汉学家 sinologist

考古学家 archaeologist

人类学家 anthropologist

历史学家 historian

地理学家 geographer

宿命论 determinism

守岁 stay up late on New Year's Eve

桂花 sweet osmanthus

中药 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)

文明摇篮 cradle of civilization

明清两代 the Ming and Qing Dynasties

江南South of the Yangtze River

水乡景色 riverside scenery

上海大剧院 Shanghai Grand Theater

样板戏 model opera

《霸王别姬》 Farewell to My Concubine

佛经 Buddhist scripture

都江堰 Dujiang Weir

《孙子兵法》 The Art of War

《三字经》 Three-Character Scripture

旗袍 cheongsam; chi-pao

中山装 Chinese tunic suit

唐装 Traditional Chinese garment; Tang suit

风水 geomancy

胡同 alley; hutong

《神农本草经》 Shen Nong's Herbal Classic

针灸 acupuncture

推拿 medical massage

切脉 feel the pulse

旧石器时代 the Paleolithic Period

母系氏族社会 matriarchal clan society

封建(制度)的 feudal

秦朝 the Qin Dynasty

汉朝 the Han Dynasty

唐朝 the Tang Dynasty

宋朝 the Song Dynasty

元朝 the Yuan Dynasty

明朝 the Ming Dynasty

清朝 the Qing Dynasty

秦始皇 the First Qin Emperor

皇太后 empress dowager

春秋时期 the Spring and Autumn Period

人工智能 artificial intelligence

生物技术 biotechnology

克隆 clone

基因突变 genetic mutation

基因工程 genetic engineering

转基因食品 genetically modified food (GM food)

小康社会 a well-off society

综合国力 the overall national strength

扶贫工程 Anti-Poverty Project

温饱工程 Decent-Life Project

安居工程 Economy Housing Project

生态农业 environment-friendly agriculture

铁饭碗 a secure job

外出打工人员 migrant worker

基层监督 grass-roots supervision

价格听证会 public price hearing

家政服务 household management service

假账 false accounting

智力密集型企业 intelligence-intensive enterprise

三角债 chain debt

素质教育 education for all-round development; quality-oriented education

社会治安情况 public security situation

改革开放政策 the reform and opening-up policy

一国两制 One Country, Two Systems

人大代表 NPC representative

法制观念 awareness of law

公务员 civil servant

和谐并存 harmonious coexistence

西部大开发 Development of the West Regions

可持续性发展 sustainable development

虚拟现实 virtual reality

网民 netizen (net citizen)

电脑犯罪 computer crime

应试教育 exam-oriented education

学生减负 reduce study load

综合治理 comprehensive treatment

下海 go into business

文化适应 acculturation

信息港 information port

摇钱树 the Money Tree

职业培训 job training

人才交流 talent exchange

职业文盲 functional illiterate

智力引进 recruit/introduce talents

早恋 puppy love

舆论导向 direction of public opinion

人口老龄化 aging of population

人口出生率 birth rate

全国人口普查 nationwide census

人口激增 population explosion

预期寿命 life expectancy

社会公益活动public welfare activity

活动中心 recreational center

道德标准 ethical standard

尊老爱幼 respect the old and cherish the young

退休金 pension

敬老院 home for the aged

老年大学 university for the aged

养老金 old-age pension

社会保险 social insurance

人寿保险 life insurance

多元文化论 multiculturalism

社会保障 social security

搬迁户 a relocated unit or household

信息革命 information revolution

信息高速公路 information superhighway

办公自动化 Office Automation (OA)

信息高地 information highland

教育界 educational circles/world

教育投入 input in education

九年义务教育 nine-year compulsory education

高考 university/college entrance examination

高校扩招 the college expansion plan

初等教育 elementary education

教育事业 educational cause

高等教育 higher education

高等学府 institution of higher education

综合性大学 comprehensive university

文科院校 college of (liberal) arts

必修课 required/compulsory course

选修课 elective/optional course

教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus

启发式教学 heuristic teaching

填鸭式教学 cramming method of teaching

学前教育 preschool education

校园数字化 campus digitalization

城市化 urbanization

基础设施 infrastructure

第三产业 tertiary industry

商业化 commercialization

水短缺 water shortage

环境污染 environmental pollution

过度工业化 over-industrialization

过度拥挤 overcrowding

财富分配 wealth distribution

社会动荡 social instability

能源和资源消耗 a drain on energy and resources

快节奏生活 a rapid pace of life

社区服务 community service

挪用公款 embezzlement

充电(知识更新) update one's knowledge

社会福利 social welfare

废物处理 waste disposal

消费方式 pattern of consumption

恶性循环 vicious cycle

资源配置 resource allocation

城市规划 urban planning

房地产 real estate

温室效应 greenhouse effect

全民健身运动 nationwide fitness campaign

网络造谣 fabricate rumors online

网络出版 online publishing

社会事业 social undertaking

每人,人均 per capita

小康社会 moderately prosperous society

宏观调控 macro-economic control

社会主义新农村 new socialist countryside

依法 pursuant to the law

生产力过剩 surplus production capacity

节能 energy conservation

以房养老 house-for-pension scheme

社区护理 community care

公务员 civil servant

取得突破 make breakthroughs

义务教育 compulsory education

杂费 miscellaneous fees

寄宿制学校 boarding school

远程教育 distance education

中等职业学校 secondary vocational school

最低生活保障 basic cost of living allowances

自治区 autonomous region

网上银行online banking

跨行转账 inter-bank transfer

手机银行 mobile banking

解放思想 free one's mind

与时俱进 keep pace with the times

因地制宜 tailor measures to local conditions

扣分处罚 point penalty

社会和谐 social harmony

特别行政区 special administrative region

扩大内需 expand domestic demand

传染病 communicable/infectious disease

前沿 cutting edge

民办学校 non-publicly funded school

社会保障 social security

试点项目 pilot project

反腐 combat corruption

填补漏洞 plug up loopholes

武警 armed police

社会主义市场经济 socialist market economy

科学发展观 Scientific Outlook on Development

社会主义和谐社会 harmonious socialist society

中国特色社会主义 socialism with Chinese characteristics

行政审批 administrative examination and approval

“十二五”规划 the Twelfth Five-Year Plan

人工智能 artificial intelligence

生物技术 biotechnology

克隆 clone

试管婴儿 test-tube baby

基因突变 genetic mutation

基因工程 genetic engineering

转基因食品 genetically modified food3D/

三维电影 three-dimensional movie

三峡工程 the Three Gorges Project

希望工程 Project Hope

民族精神 national spirit

小康水平 comparatively well-off level

多极世界 multipolar world

一个中国原则 the one-China principle

综合国力 the overall national strength

共同愿望 common desire/aspiration

不结盟 non-alignment

单边主义 unilateralism

多边主义 multilateralism

无土栽培 soilless culture

生态农业 environmental-friendly agriculture

农村剩余劳动力 surplus rural labor force

关系户 closely-related unit

低洼地区 low-lying area

淹没农田 inundate cultivated land

终身职业 lifelong career

铁饭碗 a secure job

外出打工人员 migrant worker

基层监督 grass-roots supervision

基础税率 base tariff level

婚纱摄影 wedding photography

机器阅卷 machine scoring

豆腐渣工程 jerry-built project

价格听证会 public price hearing

家政服务 household management service

加强舆论监督 enhance the supervision by the public opinion

扩大中等收入者比重 raise the proportion of the middle-income group

借调 temporarily transfer

假账 false accounting

智力密集型企业 intelligence-intensive enterprise

下岗职工 laid-off worker

素质教育 education for all-round development; quality-oriented education

形象小姐/先生 image representative of a product or a brand

社会治安情况 public security situation

改革开放 reform and opening-up

一国两制 One Country, Two Systems

和谐并存 harmonious coexistence

三个代表 Three Represents

人大代表 deputy to the NPC

人大常委会 Standing Committee of the NPC

法制观念 awareness of law

法治国家 a country under the rule of law

官僚主义作风 the bureaucratic style of work

计算机辅助教学 computer-assisted instruction

虚拟现实 virtual reality

电脑犯罪 computer crime

网上购物 online shopping

应试教育 exam-oriented education

学生减负 reduce study load

下海 go into business; plunge into the commercial sea

舆论导向 direction of public opinion

提供各种便民服务provide various convenient services

新秀 up-and-coming youngster

文化适应 acculturation

信息港 information port

综合治理 comprehensive treatment

以人为本 people oriented; people foremost

易拉罐 pop-top can

虚拟网 virtual net

职业培训 job training

人才交流 talent exchange

人才战 competition for talented people

职业文盲 functional illiterate

智力引进 recruit/introduce talent

智商 intelligence quotient (IQ)

患难夫妻 couple who go through thick and thin together

招生就业指导办公室 enrollment and vocation guidance office

人口老龄化 aging of population

人口出生率 birth rate

全国人口普查 nationwide census

人口激增 population explosion

预期寿命 life expectancy

社会公益活动public welfare activities

尊老爱幼 respect the old and cherish the young

教育事业 educational cause

道德标准 ethical standards

娱乐中心 recreation center

搬迁户 a relocated unit or household

敬老院 home for the aged

老年大学 university for the aged

养老金 old-age pension

社会保险 social insurance

人寿保险 life insurance

多元文化论 multiculturalism

社会保障 social security

老弱病残 the aged, the weak, the sick, and the disabled

大龄青年 single youth above the normal matrimonial age

核心家庭 nuclear family

直系家庭 stem family

大家庭 extended family

破裂的家庭 broken family

家庭规模 family size

孝(道) filial piety/duty

孝顺 show filial obedience

孝子/孝女 dutiful son/daughter

独生子女 the only child

媒人 matchmaker

统筹兼顾 make overall plans and take all factors into consideration

退耕还林还牧 convert the land for forestry and pasture

未婚子女unmarried children

学生处 students' affairs division

在职博士生 on-the-job doctor

青少年犯罪 juvenile delinquency

教育界 educational circles/world

教育投入 input in education

九年义务教育 nine-year compulsory education

团队精神 team spirit

高考 university/college entrance examination

高校扩招 the college expansion plan

大学城 college/university town

初等教育 elementary education

理工科大学 college/university of science and engineering

政治思想教育 political and ideological education

大学社区 college community

高等教育 higher education

高等学府 institution of higher education

综合性大学 comprehensive university

师范学院 normal college

文科院校 colleges of (liberal) arts

考研 take the Postgraduate Entrance Examination

高分低能 high scores and low abilities

出租车起步价 flag-down fare

法定准备金率 required reserve ratio

网购 online shopping

虚拟经济 fictitious economy

反盗版 anti-piracy

知识产权 intellectual property rights

出口退税 tax rebates

人民币升值 RMB appreciation

信贷紧缩 credit crunch

最优惠贷款利率 prime lending rate

经济适用房 economically affordable house

大宗交易系统 block trading system

暴利税 windfall profits tax

从紧的货币政策 tight monetary policy

宽松的货币政策 easy monetary policy

审慎的财政政策 prudent fiscal policy

股权收购 stake purchase

房屋中介 letting agent

地产经纪人 estate broker

直销 direct selling

传销 pyramid selling

吃回扣 to take/receive/get kickback

洗钱 money laundering

透支 overdraft

货币升值 revaluation

起征点 cutoff point

养老保险 endowment insurance

逃税 tax evasion

首次公开募股 initial public offering

出口补贴 export subsidy

资产负债表 balance sheet

库存量 inventory

反倾销 antidumping

赤字 shortfall

资本净值 net worth

牛市 bull market

法律风险 legal risk

风险管理 risk management

信用风险 credit risk

第一产业(农业) primary industry

第二产业(工业) secondary industry

第三产业(服务业) tertiary industry

国内生产总值 gross domestic product (GDP)

(商品和劳务币值总和,不包括海外收入支出)扩大内需 expand domestic demand

分期付款 payment by installments

计划经济 planned economy

中国人民银行(中央银行) People's Bank of China (Central Bank)

四大国有商业银行 four major state-owned commercial banks

居民储蓄存款 residents' bank savings deposit

泡沫经济 bubble economy

经济过热 overheating of economy

通货膨胀 inflation

实体经济 the real economy

经济规律 laws of economics

市场调节 market regulation

优化资源配置 optimize allocation of resources

市场风险 market risk

国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs)

私营企业 private businesses

中小企业 small and medium-sized enterprises

电话会议 conference call

空头支票 dishonored cheque

折旧 depreciation

多元化 diversification

倾销 dumping



新兴市场emerging market

汇率exchange rate

上市,公开上市going public

合营企业,合资企业joint venture



中长期贷款medium and long term loans

道德风险moral hazard

机会成本opportunity cost


贸易赤字,贸易逆差trade deficit

贸易盈余,贸易顺差trade surplus

世界银行World Bank

世界贸易组织World Trade Organization(WTO)

宏观调控 macroeconomic regulation

社会主义新农村 new socialist countryside

生产力过剩 surplus production capacity

节能 energy conservation

公务员civil servant

远程教育 distance education

最低生活保障 basic cost of living allowance

稳健的财政政策 prudent fiscal policy

所得税 income tax

高附加值 high value-added

社会主义市场经济 socialist market economy

科学发展观 Scientific Outlook on Development

社会主义和谐社会 harmonious socialist society

生活标准 standard of living

购买力 purchasing power; buying power

停滞 stagnation

平均收益 average revenue

商品 commodity

商品市场 commodity market

竞争性市场 competitive market

消费者偏好 consumer preference

折扣 discount

劳动分工 division of labor

经济效率 economic efficiency

规模经济 economy of scale

企业家精神 entrepreneurship

过度供给 excess supply; oversupply

支出 expenditure

要素市场 factor market

出租车起步价 flag down fare

暴利税 windfall tax

实体经济 real economy

虚拟经济 fictitious/virtual economy

人民币升值 appreciation of the RMB

住房保障制度 housing security system

成品油 refined oil

原油价飙升 crude oil prices surge

原油储备 crude oil stockpile

油价机制 oil price mechanism

经济特区 special economic zone

软着陆 soft landing

结构改革 structural reform

城镇化 urbanization

上座率 seat occupancy rate

浮动票价 floating prices

网络交易平台 e-trade platform

索赔 claim for compensation

个体工商户 individual business

房屋中介 estate agent

保险经纪人 insurance agent

漫游费 roaming fee

单向收费 one-way charge

来电免费业务 free incoming call

海关税收 customs revenue

减税 tax break

高端产品 high-end product

跳槽 job-hopping

职员总数 headcount

投机 speculation

货币经纪人 money broker

解雇金 severance pay

高峰期 peak season

出境游 outbound tourism

首次公开募股 initial public offering (IPO)

新闻专线 newswire

衰退 downturn

人口红利 demographic dividend

刚性需求 rigid demand

首付款 down payment

炼油厂 refinery

官方证明书 official certificate

半导体 semiconductor

基准点 benchmark

借记卡 debit card

最佳时期 optimum period

集体诉讼 class action

财务欺诈 accounting fraud

次贷危机 subprime lending crisis

赤字 deficit

汽车制造商 automaker

电信业 telecommunications

储备金 reserve

钢铁工业 iron and steel industry

税收 tax revenue

上市 go public

预算 budget

证券 securities

债券 bond

股份 share

通货紧缩 deflation

贸易保护主义 trade protectionism

第三产业 tertiary industry

赞助商 sponsor

贸易壁垒 trade barrier

跨国公司 multinational corporation

关税 tariff

公司破产 corporate bankruptcy

反倾销 anti-dumping

配额 quota

汇率 exchange rate

生态补偿 ecological compensation

节能灯 energy-saving lamp

差别电价 differential power pricing

宏观调控体系 macro-regulatory system

恶性竞争 cutthroat competition

资源配置 allocation of resources

产业转移 industrial transfer

产业升级 industrial upgrading

期货市场 futures market

高附加值产品 high value-added product

南南合作 South-South Cooperation

南北对话 North-South Dialogue

西部大开发 Western Development

西气东输工程 West-East Pipeline Project

信息革命 information revolution

信息高速公路 information highway