小郭413 2021-09-15 14:56
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One of Google's self-driving cars crashed into a bus in California last month. There were no injuries.

It is not the first time one of Google's famed self-driving cars has been involved in a crash, but it may be the first time it has caused one.

On February 14th the self-driving car, travelling at 2mph (3km/h), pulled out in front of a public bus going 15mph (24km/h).

The man in the Google vehicle reported that he assumed the bus would slow down to let the car out, and so he did not switch to the manual mode.

In a statement, Google said: "We clearly bear some responsibility, because if our car hadn't moved, there wouldn't have been a crash."

That said, our test driver believed the bus was going to slow or stop to allow us to merge into the traffic, and that there would be sufficient space to do that."

The company's self-driving cars have done well over a million miles across various states in the US, and until now have only reported minor accidents。

Q1: According to Google, what was the cause of the accident?

Q2: How have Google’s self-driving cars performed so far?


1.【B】The test driver made a wrong judgement

2.【D】They have generally done quite well


Thousands of bees left a town after landing on the back of a car when their queen got stuck in its boot. Tom Moses who works at a nearby national park, noticed a “brown patch” on the back of the car after the owner parked it to do some shopping. When he looked closer he realized it was a huge group of bees.

Moses said: “I have never seen that many bees in one spot. It was very unusual. They were very close together and there was a lot of noise and movements, it was interesting to see such a strange sight. But there were a lot of people around and I was a bit worried about the bees and the people stopping to look. I thought that someone might do something stupid.

Moses called two local bees specialists who helped removed the bees by attracting them into a box.

Moses spent three hours looking after the bees and was stung five times, he said my stings are a bit painful but I am pleased that all worked out and I could help, people need to realize that bees are valuable and they should be looked after.

Q3. What do we learn about Tom Moses?

Q4. What do we know about the bees on the back of the car?


3.【A】He works at a national park

4.【B】They were making a lot of noise.


A new species of snake has been discovered on a remote island in the Bahamas.

Scientists identified 20 of the one meter-long snakes during two trips to the Caribbean islands. The second trip was made in October last year.

One of the creatures made a dramatic appearance by moving on to the head of the team leader as he slept.

The snake has been named silver boa because it is metallic colored and the first specimen found was climbing a silver palm tree.

The team was led by Dr. Graham Reynolds, from Harvard University, the scientist confirmed the snake was a previously unknown species after conducting a genetic analysis of tissue samples.

Commenting on the find, snake expert Robert Henderson from the Museum of Natural History, said: “Worldwide new species of frogs are being discovered and described quite regularity. New species of snakes, however, are much rarer.

Q5. What is the news report mainly about?

Q6. What do we learn about the scientific team leader?

Q7. How did the newly discovered creature get its name?


5.【A】The discovery of a new species of snake.

6.【C】A snake crawled onto his head in his sleep

7.【D】From its colour.


W: Did you enjoy your stay with us, Mr. Brown?

M: Yes, very much. I had a wonderful time here. Now I'm going to the airport. My flight leaves in less than 2 hours. So, could you tell me, what's the quickest way to get there?

W: Well, we can call a taxi for you. We also have a free airport shuttle service.

M: That sounds great, but will the shuttle get me to the airport in time?

W: Yes, it should. The next shuttle leaves in 15 minutes. And it takes some 25 minutes to get to the airport.

M: Fantastic! I'll just wait in the lobby. Will you please let me know when it's leaving?

W: Of course, sir.

M: Now I would like to settle my mini-bar bill. How much is that?

W: Let's see. It comes to $37.50. How would you like to pay for it?

M: I'll pay with my credit card. Thanks. But I'll need a receipt, so I can charge it to my company.

W: Absolutely! Here you are, sir. If you like, I can leave your bags with the porter. And he can load them onto the shuttle for you when it arrives.

M: That would be great. Thank you.

W: Would you like to leave a comment on our web page when you have time?

M: Sure. I had a really good stay here, and I'd like to recommend your hotel to my friends and colleagues.

W: That’s very kind of you. Thank you again for staying at Sheraton Hotel.

Q8. Why does the man ask about the quickest way to the airport?

Q9. How is the man going to pay his bill?

Q10. What did the man ask the woman to do?

Q11. What favor does the woman ask of the man?


8.【A】The security check takes time.

9.【8】By credit card

10.【A】Give him a receipt.

11.【D】Posting a comment on the hotel’s webpage.


M: You know, Ben’s given up making those terrible faces he used to make. The other day, he came home from school almost in tears. His teacher said if he went on like that, his face would get stuck when the winds changed.

W: And he believed her?

M: Yeah, he’s only a little boy. Don’t you remember all those things we used to believe when we were little? I remember my aunt Mary used to say if you swallow a cherrystone, a tree would grow out of your mouth. And I’m still terrified today, sort of subconsciously. You know, if I swallow one by mistake…

W: Yeah, I suppose you're right. The one that used to get me was that swans could break your leg when they blow of the wing.

M: They can, can’t they? I always thought they could.

W: No, they are not that strong. But there’s another one even more terrifying. That is, if you put a post stamp on upside down, you will go to prison.

M: No, never heard of that. But my grandmother was a terror for that kind of thing. For example, she would say, you will get a spot on your tongue if you tell a lie. If you eat stale bread, your hair will curl. And here’s one more. We went on a campaign trip once in Italy, and my wife spent the whole time worrying about bats getting into her hair. She said her grandmother reckoned you had to shave your head to get it out. My wife was really terrified.

W: Silly, isn’t it? But that’s how some parents try to keep their kids from doing the wrong thing or getting into trouble.

Q12: What does the man say about Ben?

Q13: What did aunt Marry used to do when the man was a child?

Q14: What does the woman believe swans could do?

Q15: What did the grandmother of the man’s wife say?


12.【C】He has stopped making terrible faces.

13.【D】Warn him of danger by making up a story

14.【A】They could break pp’s legs

15.【B】One would have to shave their head to remove a bat in their hair.



If I could go back in history and live when I liked, I wouldn't go back very far. In fact, I'd like to relive a period I've already lived – the 1960s.

I was in my twenties, and everything was being renewed. People would come in out of a formal and almost Victorian attitude, and you really felt anything was possible. Meeting people was the thing, and you went to coffee bars where you met friends and spent the evening. The cinema, the theater, all that was every exciting with new things coming out. In fact, we seemed to be out, all the time! I don't really remember working – of course, I was a student – or sitting around at home very much. That just wasn't where the scene was, even eating! It was the first time, ordinary people started going out to eat. We were beginning to be adventurous about food, but we were more interested in meeting people than in eating or drinking. And dress, yes, that was the revolution. I mean, girls went around in really short skirts, and wore flowers in their hair. And men were in jeans, and could wear their hair long too. It was a wonderful period. It was like living in an age you could never have imagined, and that never has come back. We didn't have much money, but it didn't matter. And there was plenty of opportunity to do whatever you felt like doing.

Question 16– 18 are based on the passage you have just heard:

16. Why does the speaker say he would like to relive the 1960s?

17. What does the speaker say was the most popular thing to do at that time?

18. What do we learn about the speaker?


16.【C】Everything seemed to be changing

17.【A】Meeting people

18.【D】He was a young student in the 1960s.


Dogs, man's best friends, have a clear strategy for dealing with angry owners—they look away.

New research shows that dogs limit their eye contact with angry humans. The scientists suggest this may be an attempt to calm humans down. This behavior may have evolved as dogs gradually learned they could benefit from avoiding conflicts with humans.

To conduct the tests, the University of Helsinki researchers trained 31 dogs to rest in front of a video screen. Facial photos of dogs and humans were displayed on the screen for 1.5 seconds. They showed threatening, pleasant and neutral expressions. Nearby cameras tracked the dogs' eye movements.

Dogs in the study looked most at the eyes of humans and other dogs to sense their emotions. When dogs looked at expressions of angry dogs, their eyes rested more on the mouth, perhaps to interpret the threatening expressions. And when looking at angry humans, they tended to turn away their gaze.

Dogs may have learned to detect threat signs from humans and respond by trying to make peace, according to researcher Sanni Somppi. Avoiding conflicts may have helped dogs develop better bonds with humans.

The researchers also note that dogs scan faces as a whole to sense how people are feeling, instead of focusing on a given feature. They suggest this indicates that dogs aren't sensing emotions from a single feature, but piecing together information from all facial features just as humans do.

Q19. What do dogs do when they are faced with angry humans?

Q20. What does a dog do when it sees the expressions of angry dogs?

Q21. How does a dog sense people's feelings?


19.【B】They avoid looking at them

20.【C】It focuses its eyes on their mouths.

21.【B】By taking in their facial s as a whole.


Winter in many places is very cold. There is lots of snow around, and the ground freezes, which can make life difficult for animals. People in cold places live in warm houses and have learned to adapt. What do animals do? There are three main ways that animals survive the cold in winter: sleep, adapt or migrate.

Some animals, such as bears, frogs and snakes, sleep all winter. They sleep very deeply and need little or no food. While sleeping, their body temperature drops, and their heart beat slows down. To prepare for this before winter, these animals eat extra food to become fat, which gives them the energy they need while they sleep.

Other animals adapt. For example, by staying active in winter. It is often hard for them to find food. So some animals, such as mice, collect extra food before winter, and hide it. When winter comes, they return to their hiding places to eat the food. Some animals grow thicker fur, or live in tree holes or underground to stay warm.

Some birds migrate by flying to a warmer place for the winter, where they can find more food. Some fly very long distances, including one kind of bird that flies from the remote north of the world, all the way to the distant south. Some birds fly in groups for safety, while others fly alone.

Questions 22-25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22. What does the speaker say about animals in winter?

23. What do we learn about animals that sleep through winter?

24. How do animals like mice adapt to the severe winter?

25. Why do some birds fly in groups when migrating, according to the speaker?


22.【D】They resort to different means to survive the bittercold.

23.【C】They consume the energy stored before the long sleep.

24.【A】By storing enough food beforehand

25.【C】To stay safe




As if you needed another reason to hate the gym, it now turns out that exercise can exhaust not only your muscles, but also your eyes. Fear not, however, for coffee can perk them right up again. During vigorous exercise, our muscles tire as they run out of fuel and build up waste products. Muscle performance can also be affected by a phenomenon called “central fatigue,” in which an imbalance in the body’s chemical messengers prevents the central nervous system from directing muscle movements effectively. It was not known, however, whether central fatigue might also affect motor systems not directly involved in the exercise itself—such as those that move the eyes. To find out, researchers gave 11 volunteers a carbohydrate solution either with a moderate dose of caffeine—which is known to stimulate the central nervous system—or as a placebo without, during 3 hours of cycling. After exercising, the scientists tested the cyclists with eye-tracking cameras to see how well their brains could still control their visual system.The team found that exercise reduced the speed of rapid eye movements by about 8%, preventing their ability to capture new visual information. The caffeine—the equivalent of two strong cups of coffee—was sufficient to counteract this effect, with some cyclists even displaying increased eye movement speeds, the team reports today in Scientific Reports. So it might be a good idea to get someone else to drive you home after that marathon.













Beer recipes change over time. Hops, for example—which give many a modern brewski its bitter, citrusy flavor—are a relatively recent addition to the beverage, first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century. Now, researchers have found a surprising ingredient in residue from 5000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While excavating two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered pottery fragments from pots, funnels, amphorae, and stoves (stove fragment pictured). The different shapes of the containers suggest they were used to brew, filter, and store beer—they may be ancient “beer-making toolkits,” and the earliest direct evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers report online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To test that hypothesis, the team examined the yellowish, dried remains inside the vessels. About a third of the starch grains they found were pitted, swollen, folded, or distorted—types of mangling that can occur during the malting and mashing needed to make beer. The majority of the grains—about 80%—were from cereal crops like millet and barley, and about 10% were bits of tubers, including yam and lily, which would have sweetened the brew, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: The crop was domesticated in western Eurasia and didn’t become a staple food in central China until about 2000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they suggest barley may have arrived in the region not as food, but as raw material for brewing beer.













36.【H】Successful team leaders know exactly where the teamshould go and are able to take promptaction.

37.【D】Decentralisation of authority was also found to be more

effective in military operations.

38.【B】In many companies,the conventional form of organisation

is giving way to a network of teams.

39.【J】Members of poorly managed teams are easily distracted from their work.

40.【G】Teamwork is most effective when team members share the

same culture.

41.【A】According to a report by Deloitte,teamwork is becoming

increasingly popular among companies.

42.【F】Some team members find it hard to agree on questions like

membership and the team's purpose.

43.【E】Some scholars think teamwork may not always bereliable,despite its potential to work wonders.

44.【I】To ensure employee's commitment,it is advisable to

givethem more flexibility as to where and how they work.

45.【C】Product transitions take much less time now than in



46.【A】Britons have cut their spending on it.

47.【B】It will remain gloomy.

48.【C】Luxurious features add much to the price.

49.【A】They are particular about the quality of toilet paper.

50.【D】Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper.


51.【B】She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly.

52.【D】They were offered nicotine replacements.

53.【C】It is encouraging.

54.【B】needs some practice first.

55.【A】They find it even more difficult.



黄河是亚洲第三、世界第六长的河流。“黄”这个字描述的是其河水浑浊的颜色。黄河发源于青海,流经九个省份,最后注入渤海。黄河是中国赖以生存的几条河流之一。黄河流域(river basin)是中国古代文明的诞生地,也是中国早期历史上最繁荣的地区。然而,由于极具破坏力的洪水频发,黄河曾造成多次灾害。在过去几十年里,政府采取了各种措施防止灾害发生。

The Yellow River is the third longest in Asia and the sixth longest in the world. The word “yellow” describes the perennial color of the muddy water. Originating in Qinghai province, the Yellow River flows through nine provinces and finally empties into the Bohai Sea. It is one of several rivers for China to live on. Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization and the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. However, because of frequent devastating floods, the river has caused many disasters. In the past few decades, the government has taken various measures to prevent disasters.


长江是亚洲最长、世界上第三长的河流。长江流经多种不同的生态系统,是诸多濒危物种的栖息地,灌溉了中国五分之一的土地。长江流域(river basin)居住着中国三分之一的人口。长江在中国历史、文化和经济上起着很大的作用。长江三角洲(delta)产出近20%的中国国民生产总值。几千年来,长江一直被用于供水、运输和工业生产。长江上还坐落着世界最大的水电站。

The Yangtze River is the longest river in Asia and also the third longest river around the world. Yangtze River which flows through a variety of different ecosystems, is the habitat of many endangered species, irrigating one fifth of the land in China. The Yangtze River Basin is home to one third of Chinese population, which plays a significant role on Chinese history, culture and economy. The Yangtze River Delta produces up to twenty percent of China's Gross National Product. For thousands of years, the Yangtze River has been taken advantages of water supply, transportation and industrial production. Besides, the world’s largest hydro-electric power station stands on the Yangtze River.



The Pearl River, an extensive river system in southern China, flows through Guangzhou City. It is China’s third-longest river, only behind the Yangtze River and the Yellow River. The Pearl River Delta is one of the most developed regions in China with an area of about 11,000 square kilometers. It is the largest urban area in the world in both size and population. The nine largest cities of Pearl River Delta have a combined population of over 57 million. Since the reform and opening up in the late 1970s, the Delta has become one of the major economic regions and manufacturing centers of both China and the world.


Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an advertisement on your campus website to sell a computer you used at college. Your advertisement may include its brand, specifications/features, condition and price, and your contact information. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words。


With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet has become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need. People don't have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mousses. The commodities they order will be delivered to them promptly。


Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an advertisement on your campus website to sell a bicycle you used at college. Your advertisement may include its brand, specifications/features, condition and price, and your contact information. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.


As we travel by bike, we will see beautiful sceneries typical of the region, meet and make friends with different people and get to know the custom of the local people.Having worked hard throughout the weekdays, people will find a weekend trip to the nearby mountains or beaches a real relaxation, riding on the bike is best choice.In my opinion, the biggest advantage of traveling is we can learn much during our travel by bike about the geography, biology, and history of the places we visit. Therefore, you ’d better seize the chance to buy this bike so as to gain something meaningful.


Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an advertisement on your campus website to sell a book you used at college. Your advertisement may include its brand, specifications/features, condition and price, and your contact information. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.


This is a graduate writing an advertisement to sell some of the course books I used at college. And I am looking forward to your keen concern and active participation.The course books was used by men when I studied in this university in 2016, which aims to be used during the English classes among students different majors by means of language study. Buying these books, you can reap the benefit of several aspects. For one thing, you can save a great amount of money and this will allow you to spend these saved money on other more significant things in that the books I sold here with only the half of the original price. For another, the content of these book include translation, writing, reading as well as listening which will be adapt to the students who are going to take the exam of CET-4 or CET-6. Last but not the least, through the purchase of these English course books with nine into new without any notes on them, you will improve your study skill to a great extent.As the old saying goes, time and tide wait for no man. The practical books with such a competitive price are hot consumer goods. Let’s join hand in and to contribute ourselves to save resources starting from me, I sincerely hope you, if interested and willing to take these books you needed.