PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION [30 MIN]
SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note taking.
(1) basic steps
(细节题。录音开始提到写论文与写普通文章时涉及到的许多基本步骤是一样的(Both kinds of writing involve many of the same basic steps)，所以可直接从讲座中得出答案basic steps。)
(2) raw material
(细节题。录音中提到论文的不同之处在于许多原始材料并不是来自你自己的头脑之中，而是来自一些出版材料，因此主要不同在于raw material的来源不同，故答案为raw material。)
(4) facts and opinions
(细节题。文中提到，对于调查性论文而言，你得收集大量的关于一个话题的事实和观点，In a survey-type research paper, you gather facts and a variety of opinions on a given topic.，故可知答案为facts and opinions。)
(细节题。从讲座中可知，“survey-type paper”写作有三个要求，分别是“gather facts”“through quotation”和“you explain”。前两个题干中已提到，故本题答案为关于“survey-type paper”的第三个方面“explain”。)
(细节题。文中提到“you try to provide a representative sampling of facts and opinions to give an objective report on your topic”。因此作者对论文的报道要客观objective。)
(细节题。文中提到“your purpose may vary with your topic”，因此作者的目的应随话题的变化而变化，故答案为purpose，注意大写。)
(8) ask some questions
(细节题。讲座的第二部分论述的是写报告的其中一个步骤——选题，本题针对选题时的一些准备提问。文中提到“As you think about your topic, ask yourself these questions”，因此决定一篇论文时应自问一些问题，演讲者并在下文具体讲述了这些问题究竟是什么。很容易得出答案ask yourself these questions，但是题目限制最多填入三个单词，故可填入ask some questions。)
(9) a manageable size
(细节题。演讲者在论述选题时要怎么做时，提出要问自己的四个问题，本题针对第三个问题——将话题缩小到一个自己可以控制的范围(cut the topic down to a manageable size) ——设题。直接提取答案 a manageable size。)
(10) the topic itself
(细节题。本题针对第四个问题设题。第四个问题开始演讲者就指出其主要内容“What questions can you ask about the topic itself?”，就论文本身写作者可提出什么问题，故可直接得出答案the topic itself。)
Writing a Research Paper
I think as seniors, you are often required by your instructors to do some library research on this topic or that. And, in the end, you have to write a research paper, right? Then what is writing a research paper like? How are we going to write one? What are the steps in producing a research paper and what are the points we need to take care of? In today’s lecture, I’ll try to answer these questions.
First of all, what is writing a research paper like? We may start by comparing it to an ordinary essay, a form of writing you are very familiar with. Writing a research paper is much like writing an essay. Both kinds of writing involve many of the same basic steps. That is, choosing a topic, asking questions to define and develop the topic, identifying the audience, getting raw material to work with, outlining the paper, writing it, and, finally, revising it. These are the steps shared between research paper writing and essay writing.
Is there any difference, you may ask. Yes.  What makes a research paper different is that much of your raw material comes not from your own head, but from printed sources: mainly books and periodicals in the library. Collecting raw material, that is reading books and taking notes, is very much like the process of brainstorming at the prewriting stage of an ordinary essay.
Generally speaking, there are two basic types of research papers, and a paper may belong to either type. It may be a survey of facts and opinions available on a given topic or an analytical argument that uses those facts and opinions to prove a point. Your instructor may tell you which kind of paper you are expected to write. If not, you yourself should eventually choose between surveying and arguing. You will then have a definite way of managing your sources.
Now, let’s take a look at how you are going to write a survey-type research paper or an argumentative。