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英语介词用法大全

沪江英语 2020-03-26 16:55
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英语介词中from的用法:此介词表示“to”相反的方向;by:表示从旁经过或在……附近,eg. This is the nearest road by which they came等。

一、含义

介词是一种用来表示词与词, 词与句之间的关系的词。在句中不能单独作句字成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。

二、分类

1.常用简单介词:

  about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides, beyond, by, concerning, beneath, between, despite, except, during, down, for, from, past, than, under, until 等。

2.合成介词:

  inside, outside, onto, out of, within 等。

3.短语介词:

  according to, ahead of, along with, as for, because of, be means of, due to, in spite of, on behalf of, owing to, with regard to 等。

三、介词与“……的”之关系

在英语学习中,一遇到“……的”,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者of。实际上,在很多情况下,“……的”必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

  ● 美国的冬天→ the winter in America

  ● 停车场的入口→ the entrance to the parking lot

  ● 穿过森林的小路→ the path through the forest

  ● 鲁迅的著作→ the works by Lu Xun

  ● 水中的月亮→ the moon reflected in water

  ● 历史的见证→ the witness to history

  ● 对爱的渴望→ a longing for love

  ● 对我们不利的证据→ the evidence against us

  ● 阳光下的漫步→ a walk in the sunlight

  ● 追求名誉的女人→ a lady after fame

  ● 两人之间的争论→ an argument between the two persons

四、重要介词的重要用法

  (1)from:此介词表示“to”相反的方向。

  He came from London.

  He went to London.

  二词常搭配使用“from... to...”

  We studied English from morning to afternoon.

  He'll start from Beijing to Shanghai.

  经典用法:

  ● 由于→ The girl is trembling from fear.

  ● 免除→ Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。

  ● 分开→ The couple parted from each other at the airport.

  ● 由……制成→ The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。

  由from引导的惯用法:

  from far 从远处

  from now / then on 从现在/那时起

  from bad to worse 每况愈下

  from time to time(occasionally 时而)

  习语:

  She comes to visit me from time to time.

  (2)out of:表示与"into"相反的语意。

  He will be out of town.

  I stepped out of the dark room.

  out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光)

  He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

  out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)

  The book has been out of date.

  out of work (= jobless 失业的)

  He needs money because be is out of work.

  out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)

  Finishing the hard work is out of the question.

  out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)

  That he can do it well is out of question.

  out of order(= not functioning 失灵的)

  Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.

  (3)by:表示从旁经过或在……附近。

  He passed by me without saying hello.

  He lives by the sea.

  经典用法:

  ● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.

  ● 在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.

  ● 由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.

  ● 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.

  ● 按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.

  ● 就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质).

  用于被动语意,导出动作执行者:

  The glass was broken by the boy.

  by + 具体时间:

  They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.

  by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...):

  He travelled to Paris by air/plane.

  by the end of + 时间名词:到……末为止

  By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.

  By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.

  by then:到那时

  He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.

  by way of (= via):经由,取道

  They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.

  by the way:顺便问

  By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?

  by far:……得多(用于修饰比较级和*高级)

  The book is by far the best on the subject.

  by accident:不小心,与on purpose(故意地)语意相反

  The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.

1.In

a.In用于室内或室外的场所。

in a room / in a building

在房间/大楼里

in a garden / in a park

在花园/公园里

I have two TVs in my house.

我房子里有两个电视。

They live in that building over there.

他们住在那栋楼里。

 

b.in与水域进行搭配

in the water

在水里

in the sea

在海里

in a river

在河里

I like swimming in lakes when the weather is hot.

我喜欢天气热时在湖里游泳。

You can catch fish in the river.

你可以在湖里捉鱼。

 

c.in和行、队伍等进行搭配

in a row / in a line

一行

in a queue

一队

Let's stand in line and get a ticket to the concert.

站成一行,买票去听音乐会。

We had to wait in a queue to get into the bank.

我们只得站成一队等着进入公园。

 

d. in与城市、县、州、地区和国家搭配

Peter lives in Chicago.

皮特住在芝加哥。

Helen is in France this month. Next month she'll be in Germany.

海伦这个月在法国。下个月她就在德国了。

 

2.At

a.at与具体的地点进行搭配

at the bus-stop

在公交车站

at the door

在门边

at the cinema

在电影院

at the end of the street

在街的尽头

I'll meet you at the movie theater at six o'clock.

我六点在电影院见你。

He lives in the house at the end of the street.

他住在街尾那间房子里。

 

b. at与页面位置进行搭配

The name of the chapter is at the top of the page.

本章名字在书页上端。

The page number can be found at the bottom of the page.

书页底部可以看到页码。

 

c. at与一群人进行搭配

at the back of the class

在教室后排

at the front of the class

在教室前排

Tim sits at the back of the class.

蒂姆坐在教室后排。

Please come and sit down at the front of the class.

请过来,坐在教室前排。

3.On

a.on与物体表面进行搭配

on the ceiling / on the wall / on the floor

天花板/墙/地板上

on the table

桌子上

I put the magazine on the table.

我把杂志放在桌子上。

That's a beautiful painting on the wall.

墙上的画很漂亮。

 

b. on与小岛进行搭配

I stayed on Maui last year. It was great!

去年我去了毛伊岛。那儿真是太棒了!

We visited friends who live on an island in the Bahamas.

我们拜访了住在巴哈马群岛的朋友们。

 

c. on与方向进行搭配

on the left

左边

on the right

右边

straight on

往前直走

Take the first street on the left and continue to the end of the road.

在第一条街左转,然后继续走到路的尽头。

Drive straight on until you come to a gate.

一直往前开,知道看见一扇门。

 

重要建议

1.In / at / on the corner

在角落

我们会说in the corner of a room,at the corner (或on the corner)of a street。

I put the chair in the corner of the bedroom of the house on the corner of 52nd Street.

我把椅子放在52号街房子的卧室角落处。

I live at the corner of 2nd Avenue.

我住在二号大街的拐角处。

2.In / at / on the front

在前面

我们会说in the front / in the back of a car(车子前方/后方)

I get to sit in the front Dad!

我要坐在爸爸前面!

You can lay down and sleep in the back of the car.

你可以躺下来,在车后面睡一下。

我们会说at the front / at the back of buildings / groups of people(在建筑物/一群人前面/后面)

The entrance door is at the front of the building.

入口在建筑物前方。

我们会说on the front / on the back of a piece of paper(纸张正面/背面)

Write your name on the front of the paper.

把你的名字写在纸张正面。

You'll find the grade on the back of the page.

你会在纸张背面看到分数。

 

4.Into

使用into来表示从一个地方到另一个地方的移动。

I drove into the garage and parked the car.

我把车开进车库,并停好。

Peter walked into the living room and turned on the TV.

皮特走进卧室,打开电视。

 

5.Onto

使用onto来表示某人将某物放在物体表面。

He put the magazines onto the table.

他把杂志放在桌子上。

Alice put the plates onto the shelf in the cupboard.

爱丽丝把碗放在碗柜的架子上。

 

6.Out of

当表示将某物拉出来或者离开房间时,可以使用out of。

I took the clothes out of the washer.

我把衣服从洗衣机里拿出来。

He drove out of the garage.

他把车从车库开出来。

 

练习题

做练习,检测自己的掌握水平。然后核对下面的答案。

1. My friend now lives _____ Arizona.

(我的朋友住在亚利桑那州。)

2. Go down the street and take the first street _____ the right.

(沿着这条街走,在第一条街向右转。)

3. That's a beautiful pictures _____ the wall.

(墙上的画很漂亮。)

4. My friend lives _____ the island of Sardinia.

(我朋友住在撒丁区的一个岛上。)

5. He's the man _____ the front the room.

(他就是站在房间前面的那个人。)

6. He drove the car _____ the garage.

(他把车开进车库。)

7. I'll meet you _____ the shopping mall.

(我在购物中心见你。)

8. I like to sit _____ the back of the room.

(我想坐在房间后排。)

9. Tom went swimming _____ the lake.

(汤姆在湖里游泳。)

10. Let's stand _____ the line to see the movie.

(站成一排去看电影。)

答案

1. in

2. on

3. on

4. on

5. at

6. into / out of

7. at

8. in

9. in

10. in

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