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宾语从句时态

沪江英语 2019-11-27 17:43
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宾语从句是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中充当宾语,位于及物动词、介词或复合谓语之后的从句称为宾语从句,要注意宾语从句的时态与主句的时态须呼应。

用来充作宾语的句子叫做宾语从句。如:
He asked what you were doing last night. 他问你昨天夜晚在干什么。
I didn’t know that he was wounded in the accident. 我原来不知道他在那事故中受了伤。
Can you explain why he didn’t come to the party last Sunday?  你能解释上周星期日他为什么没有来参加聚会吗?

 

在宾语从句中须注意:

1. that 在口语中常被省略,但在正式的文体中,不能省;并且它一般不能引导介词的宾语从句,但可引导except, but, in 等少数介词的宾语从句。如:
I didn’t know (that) he was Li Lei. 我不知道他就是李蕾。
I will do anything I can to help you except that I’m ill. 只要我身体舒服,我愿做任何事情来帮助你。

 

2. 宾语从句之后带有补足语成分时,一般须用it作形式宾语,把宾语从句放到句末,此时的that不能省。如:
The boy has made it clear that they can’t play with his toys. 那个男孩已清楚的表明他们不能玩弄他的玩具。

 

3. 动词advise, ask, demand, desire, insist(坚决主张), order, propose, request, suggest(建议)等代的宾语从句须用虚拟语气,即:(should) do的形式。
He asked that we (should) get there before nine o’clock. 他要求我们在九点钟之前赶到那儿。
The teacher advised us that we (should) not waste our time. 老师劝告我们不要浪费时间了。

 

4. 宾语从句的时态与主句的时态须呼应。
1)当主句谓语动词的时态是现在时或将来时,从句的谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态表示。如:
He always says that he is our good friend. 他总是说他是我们的好朋友。
When the teacher knows what we have done, he will say that we have done a good deed. 当老师知道我们所干的事情时,他会说我们做了一件好事。

 

2)当主句谓语动词的时态为过去时,从句的谓语动词须用响应的过去时。如:
He didn’t tell us he came from Shanghai. 他没有告诉我们他来自上海。
He said he had read the book. 他说他读过这本书。

 

3)但当从句的内容是客观真理或客观事实,而不受时间的限制时,即使主句谓语动词为过去时,从句仍用一般现在时。
Chairman Mao said that all the imperialists are paper tigers. 毛主席说一切帝国主义者都是纸老虎。
When we were children, we were told that China is in the east of the world. 我们还是小孩子的时候,人们就告诉我们说中国在世界的东方。

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