With the advent of the aging population in China, its central government has ended China’s population control policies in order to boost population growth.
In the past peopling living in the rural areas were often permitted to have two children, with the exceptions that if the first child was a son, and couples who broke this regulations would have to pay a big fine amount to tens of thousands rmb. Despite of the punishment, a lot of couples chose to give birth to a second child, contributing to the population boom in the 1950s. The huge population provide China abundant labor and consumer market, and boost China’s economic growth.
With the cost of raising children going rocket high, and a long period of tertiary education , young people postpone their marriages till early 30s thus resulting a lower birth rate. Though government encourage fertility rate by lifting up restrictions, but couples would rather invest in one child as opposed to two children giving the high costs of raising another child in China, besides, the childcare system also needs to be further developed.
Therefore, unless government make efforts to ensure that women’s right protected while on maternal leave, and the cost of child care affordable, it will unlikely that the two-child policy will yield results.