1． 名词/代词+ 现在分词
例 The man lay there, his hands trembling.
So many students being absent, the meeting had to be put off.
His homework having been done, Tom went to sleep.
注：“独立结构”中的being或 having been 有时可以省去，这样就成了无动词分句或过去分词分句。
例 The boy lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head.
The job not finished, we couldn’t see the film.
Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move.
例He suggested going for a picnic, Mary to provide the food.
These are the first two books， the third one to come out next month.
We shall get together at 7:30, the procession（游行） to start moving at 8 sharp.
例 Many people joined in the work, some of them women and children.
He fought the tiger，a stick his only weapon.
例The floor wet and slippery, we had to stay outside for a while.
I heard that she got injured in the accident， my heart full of sorry.
例 The meeting over, we all went home.
Nobody in, he left a message on the board.
He sat at the table, head down.
例 The teacher came in, a book under his arm.
The hunter entered the forest， gun in hand．
Nobody at home, the thief took a lot of things away.
8. with引导的复合结构, 也可以认为是一种独立主格结构
例 A woman got on the bus with a baby around her arms.
The teacher came in with several students following behind.
With a lot of things to deal with, he will have a difficult time.
With the work done, he went out to eat.
He left the office with the lights on.
Mary rushed out of the house with the door open.